Elevated Root-Zone Temperature Modulates Growth and Quality of Hydroponically Grown Carrots


Air and soil temperatures strongly influence the growth and quality of crops. However, in root vegetables, such as carrot, few experiments aimed at regulating growth and quality by manipulating root-zone temperature have been reported. We investigated the effect of root-zone temperatures (20°C, 25°C, 29°C, and 33°C) on carrot growth and components using a hydroponic system. High root-zone temperatures for 14 days reduced shoot and rootgrowth and water content. In contrast, total phenolic compounds and soluble-solid content increased in tap roots under high-temperature treatment. Root oxygen consumption was upregulated after 7 days under high-temperature treatment. These results suggest that high root-zone temperatures induce drought-like stress responses that modulate carrot biomass and components. High root-zone temperature treatments administered to hydroponically grown crops may be a valuable tool for improving and increasing the quality and value of crops.

Share and Cite:

Sakamoto, M. and Suzuki, T. (2015) Elevated Root-Zone Temperature Modulates Growth and Quality of Hydroponically Grown Carrots. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 749-757. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.68072.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Kozai, T. (2012) Plant Factory with Artificial Light. Ohmsha Ltd., Tokyo.
[2] Park, J.S., Choung, M.G., Kim, J.B., Hahn, B.S., Kim, J.B., Bae, S.C., Roh, K.H., Kim, Y.H., Cheon, C.I., Sung, M.K. and Cho, K.J. (2007) Genes Up-Regulated during Red Coloration in UV-B Irradiated Lettuce Leaves. Plant Cell Reports, 26, 507-516.
[3] Johkan, M., Shoji, K., Goto, F., Hhida, S. and Yoshihara, T. (2011) Effect of Green Light Wavelength and Intensity on Photomorphogenesis and Photosynthesis in Lactuca sativa. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 75, 128-133.
[4] Kazan, K. and Manners, J.M. (2011) The Interplay between Light and Jasmonate Signalling during Defence and Development. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62, 4087-4100.
[5] Liu, W.K. and Yang, Q.C. (2011) Effects of Short-Term Treatment with Various Light Intensities and Hydroponic Solutions on Nitrate Concentration of Lettuce. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B—Soil & Plant Science, 62, 109-113.
[6] Tal, M., Katz, A., Heikin, H. and Dehan, K. (1979) Salt Tolerance in the Wild Relatives of the Cultivated Tomato: Proline Accumulation in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., L. peruvianum Mill. and Solanum pennellii Cor. Treated with NaCl and Polyethyleneglycol. New Phytologist, 82, 349-355.
[7] Adams, P. (1991) Effects of Increasing the Salinity of the Nutrient Solution with Major Nutrients or Sodium Chloride on the Yield, Quality and Composition of Tomatoes Grown in Rockwool. Journal of Horticultural Science, 66, 201-207.
[8] Gao, Z., Sagi, M. and Lips, S.H. (1998) Carbohydrate Metabolism in Leaves and Assimilate Partitioning in Fruits of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) as Affected by Salinity. Plant Science, 135, 149-159.
[9] Saito, T., Matsukura, C., Ban, Y., Shoji, K., Sugiyama, M., Fukuda, N. and Nishimura, S. (2008) Salinity Stress Affects Assimilate Metabolism at the Gene-Expression Level during Fruit Development and Improves Fruit Quality in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 77, 61-68.
[10] Kaplan, F., Kopka, J., Haskell, D.W., Zhao, W., Schiller, K.C., Gatzke, N., Sung, D.Y. and Guy, C.L. (2004) Exploring the Temperature-Stress Metabolome of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 136, 4159-4168.
[11] Ramakrishna, A. and Ravishankar, G.A. (2011) Influence of Abiotic Stress Signals on Secondary Metabolites in Plants. Plant Signaling & Behavior, 6, 1720-1731.
[12] Jochum, G.M., Mudge, K.W. and Thomas, R.B. (2007) Elevated Temperatures Increase Leaf Senescence and Root Secondary Metabolite Concentration in the Understory Herb Panax quinquefolius (Araliaceae). American Journal of Botany, 94, 819-826.
[13] Gazula, A., Kleinhenz, M.D., Streeter, J.G. and Miller, A.R. (2005) Temperature and Cultivar Effects on Anthocyanin and Chlorophyll b Concentrations in Three Related Lollo Rosso Lettuce Cultivars. HortScience, 40, 1731-1733.
[14] Wang, S.Y. and Camp, M.J. (2000) Temperatures after Bloom Affect Plant Growth and Fruit Quality of Strawberry. Scientia Horticulturae, 85, 183-199.
[15] Ikeda, T., Suzuki, N., Nakayama, M. and Kawakami, Y. (2011) The Effects of High Temperature and Water Stress on Fruit Growth and Anthocyanin Content of Pot-Grown Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch. cv. “Sachinoka”) Plants. Environment Control in Biology, 49, 209-215.
[16] Bozalana, N.K. and Karadeniza, F. (2011) Carotenoid Profile, Total Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Carrots. International Journal of Food Properties, 14, 1060-1068.
[17] Islam, A.F.M.S., Hirai, H. and Kitaya, Y. (2008) Hydroponic Cultivation of Carrots Using Modified Rockwool Blocks. Journal of Applied Horticulture, 10, 132-136.
[18] Terabayashi, S., Harada, N., Date, S. and Fujime, Y. (2008) Effects of Aeration and Root Immersion Level on the Development of Carrot Root in Hydroponics. Horticultural Research (Japanese), 7, 439-444.
[19] Gichuhi, P.N., Mortley, D., Bromfield, E. and Bovell-Benjamin, A.C. (2009) Nutritional, Physical, and Sensory Evaluation of Hydroponic Carrots (Daucus carota L.) from Different Nutrient Delivery Systems. Journal of Food Science, 74, S403-S412.
[20] Asaduzzaman, M., Kobayashi, Y., Mondal, M.F., Ban, T., Matsubara, H., Adachi, F. and Asao, T. (2013) Growing Carrots Hydroponically Using Perlite Substrates. Scientia Horticulturae, 159, 113-121.
[21] Leja, M., Kaminska, I., Kramer, M., Maksylewicz-Kaul, A., Kammerer, D., Carle, R. and Baranski, R. (2013) The Content of Phenolic Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity Varies with Carrot Origin and Root Color. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 68, 163-170.
[22] Nagata, M., Noguchi, Y., Sugiyama, K. and Imanishi, S. (2006) A Simple Method for the Estimation of Alpha- and Beta-Carotene in Carrots. Acta Horticulturae, 8, 565-569.
[23] Sakamoto, M., Munemura, I., Tomita, R. and Kobayashi, K. (2008) Involvement of Hydrogen Peroxide in Leaf Abscission Signaling, Revealed by Analysis with an in Vitro Abscission System in Capsicum Plants. The Plant Journal, 56, 13-27.
[24] Wheeler, T.R., Morison, J.I.L., Ellis, R.H. and Hadley, P. (1994) The Effects of CO2, Temperature and Their Interaction on the Growth and Yield of Carrot (Daucus carota L.). Plant, Cell & Environment, 17, 1275-1284.
[25] Rosenfeld, H.J., Aaby, K. and Lea, P. (2002) Influence of Temperature and Plant Density on Sensory Quality and Volatile Terpenoids of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Root. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82, 1384-1390.
[26] Narayan, M.S., Thimmaraju, R. and Bhagyalakshmi, N. (2004) Interplay of Growth Regulators during Solid-State and Liquid-State Batch Cultivation of Anthocyanin Producing Cell Line of Daucus carota. Process Biochemistry, 40, 351- 358.
[27] Adebooye, O.C., Schmitz-Eiberger, M., Lankes, C. and Noga, G.J. (2010) Inhibitory Effects of Sub-Optimal Root Zone Temperature on Leaf Bioactive Components, Photosystem II (PS II) and Minerals Uptake in Trichosanthes cucumerina L. Cucurbitaceae. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 32, 67-73.
[28] Yan, Q., Duan, Z., Mao, J., Xun, L. and Fei, D. (2013) Low Root Zone Temperature Limits Nutrient Effects on Cucumber Seedling Growth and Induces Adversity Physiological Response. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 12, 1450- 1460.
[29] Malik, S., Andrade, S.A.L., Sawaya, A.C.H.F., Bottcher, A. and Mazzafera, P. (2013) Root-Zone Temperature Alters Alkaloid Synthesis and Accumulation in Catharanthus roseus and Nicotiana tabacum. Industrial Crops and Products, 49, 318-325.
[30] Chaves, M.M., Flexas, J. and Pinheiro, C. (2009) Photosynthesis under Drought and Salt Stress: Regulation Mechanisms from Whole Plant to Cell. Annuals of Botany, 103, 551-560.
[31] Shah, N.H. and Paulsen, G.M. (2003) Interaction of Drought and High Temperature on Photosynthesis and Grain-Filling of Wheat. Plant and Soil, 257, 219-226.
[32] Suzuki, K., Nagasuga, K. and Okada, M. (2008) The Chilling Injury Induced by High Root Temperature in the Leaves of Rice Seedlings. Plant & Cell Physiology, 49, 433-442.
[33] He, J., Qin, L. and Lee, S.K. (2013) Root-Zone CO2 and Root-Zone Temperature Effects on Photosynthesis and Nitrogen Metabolism of Aeroponically Grown Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in the Tropics. Photosynthetica, 51, 330-340.
[34] Farooq, M., Wahid, A., Kobayashi, N., Fujita, D. and Basra, S.M.A. (2009) Plant Drought Stress: Effects, Mechanisms and Management. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 29, 185-212.
[35] Saito, T. and Matsukura, C. (2015) Effect of Salt Stress on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Tomato Plants. In: Abiotic Stress Biology in Horticultural Plants, Springer, 3-16.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.