The Conception of Tunisian Student Teachers of the Formative Role of the Cooperative Teacher’s


Tutoring is located at the crossroads of academic and practical logic; it’s defined as a training device in the workplace. Indeed, much research has demonstrated the importance of the accompaniment of the cooperative teacher’s (CT) on their practicum. The CT is contributing to the training by the advice and support. Our research "the formative role of CT" seeks to explore the accompaniments practices in initial training of PE-STs. This study includes a qualitative analysis which aims to identify the conception PE-STs of the role of CT for whom they are responsible for training. It’s a descriptive/exploratory methodology based on a questionnaire consisting of open questions to clarify the latent construct “practical accompanying” and gives PE-STs the opportunity to share their concepts and concerns on issues, such as professional training, accompanying practices and CT role. Data are collected with forty PE-STs during professional training in Level 3 (third year, BAC + 3). PE-STs justify their preoccupation by four categories in which we have grouped the different types of responses. The PE-STs are more interested by problems of the knowledge (32.39%) and interventions (30.99%) of CT. They believe that there’s a difference between the conception of the role of CT by PE-STs before and during the internship.

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Zayed, W. , Bali, N. , Souissi, N. and Desbiens, J. (2015) The Conception of Tunisian Student Teachers of the Formative Role of the Cooperative Teacher’s. Creative Education, 6, 1060-1075. doi: 10.4236/ce.2015.610105.

1. Introduction

In the literature, the studies don’t lack of reflection on the accompaniments practices during the initial training of PE-ST but few studies measure and analyze their effects. However, analysis of the tutorial activity has taken an interest in the field of professional training ( Martineau&Presseau, 2003; Maela, 2009; Desbiens et al., 2009; Perez-Roux, 2012 ) and the Higher Institute of Sport and the physical Education (ISSEP) to Tunis (Bali, 2005; Bali, 2013; Bali et al., 2013; Bali & Souissi, 2015; Bali, 2015; Zayed & Bali, 2015) . According to Bergevin (2007), mentoring results in a personal and professional relationship between the mentor and mentee. Mentors are also known as: experienced teachers, accompanists or supervisors. Mentees are different names like: beginning teachers or even novices protected. Bergevin (2007) adds that there are many definitions of the term “mentoring”. He divided these definitions depending on the type of process to which they refer: accompaniment process, teaching process, interaction and relational process. In this context, the CT plays a fundamental role in facilitating their integration in the professional context ( Lévesque & Gervais, 2000; Martineau&Presseau, 2003; Jorro, 2007; Perez-Roux, 2012; Bali, 2014).According to Bremond (2013) the terms “trainer” and “learner” refer to asymmetric roles, one receiving what the other initiates. These roles are distributed in situations of training and have an influence on the content of discussions and training process.For its part, the CT must have a style, develop a training contract, master interviewing techniques and make the evaluation (Carlier, 2002) . Boutet (2002) lists some characteristics of a good CT: the experience, the confidence, the openness to theoretical contributions and reflection, the coherence, the acceptance to question and to be questioned. To be a CT, one must be able to explain his thinking; to work in teams and to share tasks also have interpersonal skills, attention to each other and positive confrontation. However, Brau-Antony etal. (2011) confirm that mentoring is a difficult function to perform. They note that the competencies required for the tutor function are different from teaching students. Usually after piloting the session, when a pedagogical act was not expected performed by PE-ST, CT explained his expectations, which appeared to him right, from a teaching behavior or classroom management. At that time, PE-ST noted the comments made and tried to show in a future session her “competence” to do as CT asked. Boulet & Pharand (2008) add that PE-ST wants to be guided and supervised. They want to take the initiative and accept their errors are reported. Rayou &Ria (2009) argue that new teachers rarely have an awareness of the reasons for the failure or success of their interventions. Mouton (2009) finds that there is a great illusion to believe that CT is able to respond effectively to the requirements of a trainee engaged with a problem situation. He added that the CT is neither a scientist nor an expert, but a professional who organizes a training environment in a role to introduce PE-STs in the teaching profession.

The objective of this study is to highlight the conception of PE-STs of the formative role of CT. We will define the nature of the responses of PE-STs. Do we know actually what is learned in usually termed the “the formative role of CT”? I will be interested in this question in the field of practical accompanying of the PE-ST in Tunisian secondary schools. In order to operationalize research questions, we have developed the following hypotheses: The PE-STs are more interested by problems of the behavior and the relationship of CT. There’s a difference between the conception of the role of CT by PE-STs before and during the internship.

2. Methodology

2.1. Participants

The participants had accepted to participate in this study. 40 PE-STs (20 men and 20 girls) indicated in Table1were selected from total 315 PE-STs studied in the Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education (ISSEP) Tunis (there are only 3 ISSEP in Tunisia each having their own teaching practice modality), whcih is a public Institute in Tunisia. All participated in this study were voluntarily. Participants werechosen taking intoaccount thelocation of the school, theteachingleveland sex ofCT. They were recruitedfrom asingleHigher InstituteofSport(Tunis). The sample ofparticipantsconsisted of thePE-ST (third year, BAC+3)who taughtlevel 1and 2 (first year of secondary educationandthe second year). All wereagedbetween(21± 1years old)registered in an introductory course to professional training, in Tunisia introductory we call the course to practice pedagogy (introductory practicum applied to pedagogy), that share in the last year of the Fundamental of Physical Education License. Thisactivityhasintroductedprofessionallife took placein schoolswithmixed agestudents(12-15 years oldstudents) from a rural areain Tunisvery engaged in professional training. The activity lasted two semesters, four hours per week on Tuesday or Thursday for a cumulative total time of 116 hours of teaching. Participants are not paidto participate in theresearch. They were not informed of the purpose and conception of the research.

The CT has teaching experience about 10 years and experience in the formation of the PE-ST between 5 and 10 years.

Table 1.Sample of Tunisian PE-ST.

Three main reasons justified the choice of this sample. Firstly, this study is part of the professional training of PE-ST. The CT is considered as a person of alternating between the university and the training environment. Which will allow us to see the nature of PE-ST conceptions of practical accompanying of CT and to understand the formative role of CT. Secondly, there is a social difference between the academic and professional? This allowed us to hypothesize the practical accompanying of CT in the integration and learning of PE-ST. This difference could influence the teaching practices of student teachers. Thirdly, this study is part of the academic program. Enabled to us hypothesize of the practical accompanying of CT should accord with this orientations and promote student learning. Our work sample meets these three parameters as indicated in Table1.

2.2. The Open Question

We used open questions (they allowthe collectionof opinionsandpersonalized answers) to clarify the latent construct “practical accompanying” and gave PE-STs the opportunity to share their concepts and concerns on issues such as professional training, accompanying practices and CT role. The questions focus on the conception of the role of CT by PE-STs before and during the internship.PE-STs are questionedby allowing themthe freedom to respond, they can express themselvesat their ease.The interview wasscheduledfor 45 minutes, according to the same considerations; the duration varies slightly from onesubject to another.

2.3. Data Collection

Data collectionwas performedin three phases.The first isan interviewwith PE-STsin orderto have datathat can be usefulin this study astheirage. At this meeting, we presented to the PE-STsthe different stepsof this researchtoknowthe phasesof the questionnaire.The second is the questions focus on the conception of the role of CT by PE-STs before the internship. Finally, the third is the questions focus on the conception of the role of CT by PE-STs during the internship andthedifference between the twotimes.

2.4. The Formation of the Corpus

After the collection of the questionnaire data conducted among PE-STs (step1), we have proceeded to the transcription of each questionnaire responses and reported in the grid (step 2). This grid has allowed us to categorize the responses of PE-STs. Finally, the third step is the linking of analyzes from different investigative techniques. We crossed the data collected during the first two steps. This categorization allowed us to approach through what the PE-ST responds and says.

3. Result and Discussion

3.1. Result

After a didactic transcription of the contents of the response of sixty PE-STsbefore the professional internship, we conducted a coding. We developed four categories in which we have grouped the different types of response:

(i) “The behavior of CTs” whenever the PE-STs talk about Assiduity, Psychological condition, PE-ST motivation and communication skills to provide a model of the behavior of the CT. In sub category “assiduity”, PE-STs declare that the CT should not be absent, come on time to school before the student and must be present all along the day. In sub category “psychological condition”, PE-STs report that the CT must be polite with PE-ST, supports him when he makes mistakes, sustains the PE-ST and gave him the autonomy. In sub category “PE-ST motivation”, PE-STs respond that the CT must be encourage the PE-ST and positive his advice. In sub category “communication skills”, PE-STs say that the CT must have a scientific discourse with PE-ST.

(ii) “The relationship of CT” whenever the PE-ST states that the CT must have a good relationships with the PE-ST, the administration and student. In sub category “relationshipswith the PE-ST”, PE-STs declare that the CT must havea goodrelationship with the PE-ST and take in to account that the PE-ST is not an experiencedteacher. In sub category “relationshipswith the administration”, PE-STs reports that the CT must integrate and help the PE-ST to solve the problems with the administrative personal. In sub category “relationshipswith the student “, PE-STs respond that the CT must help PE-ST in the mastery of students.

(iii) “The knowledge of CT”whenever PE-STs talks about teaching style, academic and experiential knowledge. In sub category “Academic knowledge”, PE-STs say that the CT must have a mentoring training, informed of the development of courses at the institute, transmits theoretical knowledge, have a training program and must helping the PE-ST t to research the selection of situations. In sub category “experiential knowledge”, PE-STs respond that the CT must have a teaching experience and Transmits practice instructions. In sub category “teaching style”, PE-STs declare that the CT must have a teaching style and a training process.

(iv) “The interventions of CT” whenever the PE-STs talks about access to land and material, correction of the PE-ST document, observation of the session and advice after the session. In sub category “access PE-ST to land and material”, PE-STs say that the CT must present the equipment of the establishment and provides favorable conditions, terrain and equipment to the PE-STs. In sub category “correction of the PE-ST document”, PE-STs report that the CT must correct pedagogical sheet, the cyclical programming, the report of sessions and the class journal. In sub category “Observation of the session”, PE-STs declare that the CT must observe the entire session, take notes in the observation and should not intervene in the piloting of the session. In sub category “advice after the session”, PE-STs say that the CT must obligatorily make a feedback, outline the PE-ST errors as feedback, respond to PE-ST questions and respect PE-ST ideas.

Duringprofessional internship we conducted a coding after a didactic transcription of the contents of the response of sixty PE-STs. We developed four categories in which we have grouped the different types of response:

(i) “ The behavior of CTs “whenever the PE-STs talk about Assiduity, Psychological condition, PE-ST motivation and communication skills to explore thebehaviorsdeflectedof the CT. In sub category “assiduity”, PE-STs declare that the CT is absent fromformation and comes late to schoolafter the student. In sub category “psychological condition”, PE-STs report that the CT must be neglect PE-ST, get angry, behaves aggressivelyand don't support the PE-ST. In sub category “PE-ST motivation”, PE-STs respond that the CT uses physical and verbal violence with students and requires the PE-ST to do, don’t encourage and demoralizes PE-ST and don’t congratulate the PE-ST despite the effort put. In sub category “communication skills”, PE-STs say that the CT transmits theinformation with an understandable way, sets all the time negative remarks and underestimates the PE-ST work.

(ii) “The relationship of CT” whenever the PE-ST states that the CT don’t have a good relationships with the PE-ST, the administration and student. In sub category “relationshipswith the PE-ST”, PE-STs declare that the CT confuses personal behavior and professional,don’t behave with PE-ST in the same way and requires the PE-ST to make secondary tasks. In sub category “relationshipswith the administration”, PE-STs report that the CT doesn’t present the PE-ST at the administrative personal. In sub category “relationshipswith the student”, PE-STs respond that the CT doesn’t help the PE-ST establish a good relationship with students and pushes the PE-ST to exclude students.

(iii) “The knowledge of CT”whenever PE-STs talks about teaching style, academic and experiential knowledge. In sub category “Academic knowledge”, PE-STs say that the CT don’t control what he says, don’tdifferentiate between didactics and pedagogy, don’tknow how prepared a report of the session and have a low theoretical knowledge. In sub category “experiential knowledge “, PE-STs respond that the CT transmits his experience of sports training and general knowledge. He compared his experience of the student experience. In sub category “teaching style”, PE-STs declare that the CT doesn’t have an accompaniment style and uses a traditional method.

(iv) “The administrative tasks” whenever the PE-STs talks about the correction of the PE-ST document, the observation of the session, the advice after the session and the evaluation. In sub category “correction of the PE-ST document”, PE-STs report that the CT doesn’t correct the pedagogical sheet and the class journal. In sub category “Observation of the session”, PE-STs declare that the CT don’t observe the session, only a part and intervene in the piloting of the session. In sub category “advice after the session”, PE-STs say that the CT does not make afeedback after the pilot session, emits only feedback on mastery of time and class, Leaves other teachers to make feedback and don’t respect PE-ST ideas. In sub category “evaluation “, PE-STs say that the CT is not objective in the allocation of the notes of students.

3.2. Discussion

3.2.1. Conception of PE-STs of the Role of CTs before Professional Training

The concerns of PE-STs related to different categories defined before the training courses are in the order: The interventions of CT (41.22%), the behavior of CT (27.70%), the knowledge of CT (22.30%) and the relationship of CT (8.78%) indicated in the Figure 1.

The results reveal that themajor expectationofpracticalaccompanimentof CTs thatthe PE-STs conceive seems to be:

The interventions of CT (41.22%) indicated in theTable2:whenever the PE-STs talks about:

Access to land and material: One of PE-ST said: “The student hasan important role.He mustput the materialand the landavailable to the PE-STs” (PE-ST 16), correction of the PE-ST document: some of PE-ST said: “The CT must make adailyfollowed” (PE-ST 11), “mustcontrol theclass journal, notebookfeedback” (PE-ST 8), “Check the theoreticalsupport” (PE-ST 4), “corrects the documentsof the PE-ST” (PE-ST 6), “they must correctpedagogical sheet” (PE-ST 19), “corrects the cyclicalprogramming” (PE-ST 21).

Observation of the session: some of PE-ST said: “Thestudent must followthe studentto correcthis faults” (PE-ST 4). “During the observation, it should take noteto tell meforinfeedback” (PE-ST 18). “He must leavethe traineepilot themeetingalone(PE-ST 19).”Hemust notinterveneinthe pilotingof the session” (PE-ST 20). “I don’t likethe ideathat the CT intervenesduring the session” (PE-ST 40). “Through observation, he must correctand giveadviceto the intern” (PE-ST 32).

Advice after the session: some of PE-ST said: “The CT must obligatorilymake afeedback, transmittinginstructions andgive solutionto the difficultiesencounteredduring thepilotsession” (PE-ST 7). “It musttransmitmanyinstructions. He mustexplainhow the teachermanagesstudents” (PE-ST 1). “He mustcriticizethe PE-ST to let him knowhis faults” (PE-ST 6). “Heshouldmake a detailedfeedback(PE-ST 19), correctsmy faults, answeron my questionsand give mesolutions” (PE-ST 25). “He must explainduring thefeedbackforthat PE-ST learnsfrom hisknowledgeand experience” (PE-ST 27).

According to Faingold (2006) the important points ofprofessional training arethe quality of discussion, the listening, the type of questions andthe sincerity ofthe relationship betweenPE-ST and CT.

Boutet&Pharand (2008) remarks that PE-STs want to guided and supervised. They wish to take the initiative and accept that their errors are reported. Rayou &Ria (2009) argue that beginning teachers rarely have a clear awareness of the reasons for the failure or success in of their interventions.

Boutin & Camaraire (2001) state that if the criteria for selection of CTs based on the pole model (teaching experience, proven expertise, team spirit and sensitivity to the life of the school), the pole trainer of CT remains high (observation skills, analytical and critical thinking). Boutet (2002) set out a list ofcharacteristics of a performed CT: experience, confidence in his means, openness to theoretical contributionsand reflection, coherence, accepting to be interviewedand questioned. To be a CT, one must be able to explain his thinking; to work in teams and to share tasks also have interpersonal skills, attention to each other and positive confrontation.

Trohel et al. (2004) described the forms of joint commitments of the CT and the PE-ST during their interaction during post-lesson interviews, giving a privileged viewpoint of each actor involved in these interactions.

Figure 1.The concerns ofPE-STs of the roleofCTs beforeprofessional training.

Table 2.Analysis grid ofconception of PE-STs of the roleofCTs beforeprofessional training.

They noticed that the CT is malformedin the role oftutor; they act on the basisof their professionalexperience in teachingphysical education.

Beau-Antony et al. (2011) are moving in this direction, they study the characteristics of the professional activity of the CT to identify the difficulties encountered when supervising PE-ST. They showed that tutoring is a difficult function to perform because you have to engage the best in a mission for which most of the time it’s poorly trained. Carlier (2002) proposes to bringtheCTand PE-STto exchangeaboutacademic knowledge.Avoid introducinghis traineethat:“Forget what you learnedin college”.

Carlier (2002) suggests that CTrecognizethe existence of twotypes of knowledge(academic and practical) and try toexploit themoptimally.Itpresents twodistinct worldsthat everythingseems to separate: the academic worldon the one handand professional reality, on the other. In addition, Carlier (2002) proposed to establisha communications contractwith the traineetoguidethe verbalizationof his action.Through questioningthat he putin place, theCTenters thepsychic intimacy of the trainee.

Vandercleyen et al. (2013) shows the success of the professional training depends by the type of intervention of the CT. They highlight in particular the dual role of the CT, to be able to explain their own pedagogical concepts to the PE-ST and help the latter to clarify his thoughts, his actions and his decisions.

The behavior of CT (27.70%) indicated inTable 2: whenever the PE-STs talks about:

Assiduity: The PE-STs reportedthat the CT mustberesponsible, serious and punctual and should notbeabsent. It mustbe presentthroughout the dayof the internshipto helpand train that. Some of PE-ST said: “It’s necessary thatthe CT isresponsible; hemust comeon time” (PE-ST 1). “It must bepunctual(PE-ST 15). Itshould notcomelate orabsent” (PE-ST 17). “TheCThas to helpme; hemust arriveon time(PE-ST 20).It must be presentallthetime tohelp me andtrain me” (PE-ST 22). “The CTmust be serious,always present, is no delay.It must arrivebeforethe PE-ST” (PE-ST 6).

Psychological condition: PE-STs state thatCTs mustbepolite.He must respect and support PE-STs whentheymake mistakes. Some of PE-ST said: “CT must respectthe student(PE-ST 15).”It must bepolishedwith the PE-ST” (PE-ST 18). “CT hassupported measI make mistakes” (PE-ST 21).

PE-ST motivation: PE-STs saythat the CT mustbepositive. Itmust support, encourage andmotivatethe PE-ST. Some of PE-ST said: “The CTmust be positive(PE-ST 5). It shouldsupport and encouragethe student” (PE-ST 25). “CTis the mostimportant link in thetrainingchain.Itshould encourage andmotivate PE-ST” (PE-ST 32).

Communication skills: PE-STs saythat the CTmust emitfeedbackwith an attractiveway. Some of PE-ST said: “CT should emit a feedback in an attractive and positive way” (PE-ST 18).

According to Parmentier (2003) it should berespect theintensity variationsin the dayand appreciatethe biological rhythmof the group.The CT shouldinvolve PE-ST, making them feel concerned aboutthe course content. The involvementof the PE-ST intervenesfrom the beginning ofthe training actionand lastsuntil the lastminute, so that PE-ST “enters” in the trainingand implementsthe skills acquired. Parmentier (2003) notices that PE-STs in trainingare motivatedif it becomesa real actortrainingfeelingvalued andsecure.He addstrainingmust first: Secure the PE-STs both materially andpsychologically.

According to Gervais & Desrosiers (2005) CTis an important actorfor PE-ST appliesin a real situation, what they learnedinuniversity.According toCarlier(2009a)CTmustextractthe bestpracticeexperientialknowledgeto transmit tothe PE-ST.This expression ofpersonal theoriesaccordingDonnay&Charlier(1996) is a first step ina reflective process, which is essential for PE-ST professionalization.

Parmentier (2003) suggestsvaluingthe PE-STs in their interventions. PE-STs should be expressed: by linkingthe contents of thetraining to theirexperiencesorknowledge,theywill rememberandintegrate. In the opposite case, they will be contentto stackknowledge theyforgetvery fast. Ifis desired that the PE-STs express themselves, these interventionsmustbeexperiencednot as a constraintor judgmentbut as arecognition of theirexperience andtheir knowledge.This valorizationintervenesat thebeginning of the internshipbythe interest ofthe CTto PE-STs,and laststhroughouttrainingbythe attentivereaction totheir interventions.

The knowledge of CT (22.30%)indicated in Table2: whenever the PE-STs talks about:

Academic knowledge: PE-STs state thatthe CTmust respectthe trainingguide.It must also havea theoretical and practicalknowledge.It doesn’t transmitfalseinformation.According tothe studentstobea trainer,CT must havegood training. Some of PE-ST said: “CTmust beupdated; itmust havea theoreticaland practical knowledgein all domains” (PE-ST 2). “Itmust becompetent” (PE-ST 5). “It must becompetentat scientific,pedagogical and didactic” (PE-ST 15). “CT should helpthe studentin thetheoretical preparationof the session” (PE-ST 6). “CT must follow the rulesof the training;it does notconveyfalseinformation.It must respectthe trainingguide” (PE-ST 8). “CTmust be trainedfor forming” (PE-ST 9). “He must havea good formation” (PE-ST 13). “CT must beupdated; itmust be informedof whatis happening inthe institute” (PE-ST 11).

Experiential knowledge:Studentssuggest thatthe CTsendshis practical experience. To do this,it must beexperienced.They claimthat the CTshould be professionalin his role.It should notbe confusedbetween hissportingtrainingexperiences withphysical education. Some of PE-ST said: “CT must transmitpractical experiencehis student” (PE-ST 6). “Itmust be experienced” (PE-ST 9). “Itshould be professionalin his role.It should notbe confusedbetween hissporttrainingexperiences withphysical education” (PE-ST 11). “CT has an important rolein the development ofprofessionalskillsof the PE-STs,it mustbe experienced toformhim” (PE-ST 13). “It must provide information onthe practical level” (PE-ST 38).

Teaching style: PE-STs requirethat the CTmust have ateaching style. Some of PE-ST said: “CT must havea teaching method, a training style” (PE-ST 21).

Carlier(2009a)states thatCTis locatedin the threestyles of supervisiondefined by Brûlé (1983). The democraticstyle(support, confrontation, discussion, clarification) the most usedin thepost sessionsspeech. The teachingstylerefers toadvice onthe selectionof content (management, provocation, evaluation, security, education, demonstration). WhenCTadopts aposture of listening, they are in experientialnon-directivestyle(interpersonalexploration, consultation and self-expression). According to Carlier (2002) , the CTmust have astyle; develop a trainingcontract, control of interview techniquesand evaluation.

The relationship of CT(8.78%)indicated in Table2: whenever the PE-STs talks about:

Relationship with the PE-ST: PE-STssuggestthat the CTsareaware thatthe PE-ST is astudent. it‘sin the process offormingnotan experienced teacher. Some of PE-ST said: “CT must beinformed that PE-ST is astudent in the process offormingnotan experienced teacher” (PE-ST 11).

Relationship with the administration: The PE-STsconsiderthe CT asa personknown withinthe school.It shouldhelp PE-STs tointegrate intoprofessional life andto get an ideaabout his work.It shouldhelp themto establish goodpersonalrelations with theadministrativeand students. Some of PE-ST said: “CTisthe person whointegrates PE-ST to professional life, with theotherCT andthe administrativepersonal” (PE-ST 4). “It must beknownin high school, everybody know him” (PE-ST 18). “CT mustpresentto PE-ST the work contextto have acomplete idea abouttheir work” (PE-ST 22).

Relationship with the student: PE-STsconsidered thatthe CTis a person whoshould help themin theclassroom management. Across thecouncil, it helps themin the masteryof students. Some of PE-ST said: “CThelps PE-ST in theclassroom management” (PE-ST 6). “It provides aprocedure to follow tobehavewith students” (PE-ST 7). “CT helpsthe studentin the masteryof the class” (PE-ST 10).

According to Bremond (2013) the training isapproached asan interaction,the CT isan actor amongothers; it’s not aholderof knowledge.The diffusion of knowledgeis fundamentallytainted bythe exchangein which shewill set out.The CTaims is totransmit knowledgeand nottalking.He must registerin the interactionwithout forgetting theunexpected andindefinite natureof professional situationsthey exchange.

3.2.2. Conception of PE-STs of the Role of CTs during Professional Training

The concerns of PE-STs related to different categories defined during the training courses are in the order: the knowledge of CT (32.39%), the interventions of CT (30.99%), the behavior of CT (27.47%) and the relationship of CT (9.15%) indicated in the Figure 2.

The results reveal that themajor preoccupationofpracticalaccompanimentof CTs thatthe PE-STs conceive seems to be The knowledge of CT (32.39%)indicated in Table3: whenever the PE-STs talks about:

Academic knowledge:Some PE-STsstate thatthe CTis not ableto form. It doesn’t explainhow to writea reportof the session.Whenever theyaskfor help onthedidacticknowledgeor other,hisanswer isfalseorcontradictorythey studiedat the institute. Some of PE-ST said: “CT is not fitfor forming; it does not explainhow to writea reportof the session” (PE-ST 9). “Itdoes not knowhow to preparea report” (PE-ST 5). “I thinkmy studentis not abletobea trainer” (PE-ST 11). “Everytime I askhim for helpor lightingdidacticpoint of view oranother, his replyis contradictorythat I studiedat the institute.Mostof the time hedoes not know orhe tells meit's wrong” (PE-ST 11). “If I sayinformation, the CT intervenesand tellsme that thisinformation is false, but itreallyis correct” (PE-ST 16).

Experiential knowledge: Some PE-STsclaim thatCTsrequire them torespect theirpersonalrecommendationseven if theyare false.In addition, it onlyhasto compare hisexperienceof the PE-ST. Some of PE-ST said:

Table3.Analysis grid ofconception of PE-STs of the roleofCTs duringprofessional training.

Figure 2.The concerns of PE-STs of the roleofCTs duringprofessional training.

“CT makes merespect hispersonalrecommendationseven ifthey are false” (PE-ST 8). “Fromknowledge,it onlycompares hisexperienceto mine” (PE-ST 11).

Teaching style: Some PE-STssaythat the CTimposes hispersonal way ofworking. It uses atraditionalmethodofteaching. Some of PE-ST said: “CT imposes itspersonal way ofworking” (PE-ST 19). “I seeit usesa traditional method” (PE-ST 40).According to Carlier (2002) CTmust take the initiativeof establishing thecontract withES: “I, masterinternship, what are my strengths,mycharacteristics?WhatI can honestlyand modestlybring youthatyou will not findelsewhere?“.

Accordingto Gervais & Desrosiers (2005) in currenttraining programs, internships are presented asexperiments toacquire arealistic picture ofthe working environmentand the profession, progressivelydevelop professional skillsby mobilizingvarious resources, including the knowledge gained inacademia.They confirmthat the internshipis animportant component of anyteacher trainingprogram.It allows PE-STs to implementin a real situation, what they had learnedat university. Gervais & Desrosiers (2005) recalledthe link betweentheory and practice, stating thatshould acquiretheoretical knowledgewasout of schooland theschool's contributionis limited to apractical dimension.The internshipallows theESto demonstrate theirlevel of mastery ofcompetencies deemed essentialfor teaching.They add thattheinternship isalearningenvironment,identification andawareness of therequirements for knowledge.

Bremond (2013) require CT toreintroducethe relationshipwith knowledgeand positionas an active subjectnot onlya catalyst.

Bali et al. (2014) confirm the difficulties encountered by the trainee teacher influences these behaviors and the tutor takes by responsibility see its role to clarify the objectives of the training.

Interventions of CT (30.99%) indicated in Table3:whenever the PE-STs talks about:

Correction of the PE-ST document:Some PE-STssaythat the CTdoes not correct theclass journal, pedagogicsheet andcyclic programming. Otherstudentsstate thatthe CTonly correctsthe spelling mistakes, not the content to be taught. Some of PE-ST said: “CTdoes not control theclass journal” (PE-ST 4). “She does not seethepedagogical sheet (PE-ST 40). She does not correct thepedagogical sheet” (PE-ST 25). “Correcting thepedagogical sheetis nevercorrect” (PE-ST 11). “CTonly correctsfor spelling errors, not the content.The same applies tothe cyclicalprogramming” (PE-ST 31).

Observation of the session: Some PE-STssaythat the CTdoes not observethe session. It remains in the dirtyteacheror isabsent. On the other PE-STs claim thatthe CT onlyobservedthe sessionfrom 8am to10am.After 10 am, the student is notworking. The CTwillobservetheconduct of thesessiononlyat thepresence of thesupervisor.The CTleavesthe other CTsand teachersinterveneduring the session.It’senables interventioninthe pilotingof the session. Some of PE-ST said: “CT does not observethe session, there’sno training” (PE-ST 4). “No observations, the CT talwaystalking on the phone” (PE-ST 5). “He doesn’t keepthe entire session” (PE-ST 13). “CT doesn’t observethe session, it remains in the dirtyteacheror sometimesabsent, asusual.I amalways aloneduring the training” (PE-ST 32). “CT onlyobservesthe sessionfrom 8am to10am.10amafterCT doesn’twork” (PE-ST 34). “Sometimes CT doesn’t observe the entiresessionafterhe criticizedmeon pointshe has not seen” (PE-ST 24). “CT is not interestedin the sessionwhen the supervisoris notpresent” (PE-ST 11). “My CT letthe other CTs and teachersinterveneduring the session” (PE-ST 7). “CT intervenesin pilotingthe sessioninall situations” (PE-ST 18).

Advice after the session: Some PE-STssaythat the CTleavesthe other CTsand teachersintervene infeedback. It doesn’t respectthefeedbacktime. Sometimes thereis nofeedback. It transmitscouncilon the preparation ofthesheet; it didn’t transmitpracticalinstructionsrelated tothe masteryof the students.The CTinsistson things thatare notimportant.He imposeshis ideasduring the discussion,it makes mefault. Some PE-STsrequirethat the CTcorrectsandguide them. Other PE-STsnotice a differencebetween whatthe CTdemandand the supervisor. Some of PE-ST said: “CT let the other CT and teachers involved in my session and feedback” (PE-ST 7). “The feedbackisreducedin time andinformation.CTtransmits onlyadvicerelated tothe masteryof time, class and educationalvoice. Sometimes the CT not does the feedback” (PE-ST 38). “In the feedback, it only provides guidelines on the preparation of the form, does not give practical instructions related to the mastery of students” (PE-ST 1). “CT insists on things that do not sound important. It is true that we must have an idea about their absences but the case remains secondary spots. The CT don’t make most important that my intervention, my advice, my choice situations. Generally he gets little (PE-ST 21). “CT does not give a more during feedback. He imposes his ideas during the discussion” (PE-ST 4). “If CT notices something that does not work, as an example if it does not like the job, she said, no feedback and she leave. She always talks about the lesson plan, poorly classroom organization, poorly managing time and space, wrong choice of situations. By cons I find my work a lot” (PE-ST 27). “CT does not consider my opinion and my choice” (PE-ST 40). “Each time CT makes me guilty, they are commonplace errors. He’s a God, there’s no fault. He considers me a confirmed teacher not a student. CT must correct me, guide me and tell me to do; I'm here to learn” (PE-ST 24). “There is a difference between what CT application and that the application supervisor” (PE-ST 3).

Evaluation: SomePE-STsdiscover adifference betweenthe attributenotesto the students and thattheballots.PE-STs reportthat the CTrequires themattributeda note aboutstudent discipline. In addition, they claim thatthe CTis not objectivein the evaluation ofstudents. Some of PE-ST said: “It’s me whodid the evaluationand attributesthe noteto studentsbut afterI sawanother notificationongrade reports” (PE-ST 29). “I noticeda delay betweenthe notesthat I attributeto the students andrealnotes” (PE-ST 5). “CT forcesmeto attributethe note onstudent discipline(PE-ST 11).”I’man excellent PE-ST, I know myself. The noteattributedbythe framerdoes not reflectmy effort” (PE-ST 34).

Carlier(2009b) states that CTrefers mainlyon personal experienceof teachers.First, Carlier (2002) suggestsCTto increase theconfidenceofPE-STsby allowing them toappropriatethe content andbehavior modelsto interactiveclassroom management.Second,askPE-STsto analyze and evaluatethe practiceby pointingthemethods tocross the barrierofexperientialknowledge.

Gaudreau et al. (2012) confirmthat more thanthe teacher’seffectivenessbeliefsare weak,more thaninappropriate behaviorin classare high.Thus, the moreinappropriate behaviorsarefrequent, moreteacherscast doubt onhis abilities,which makes itmore vulnerable to stressand professional burnout.

The behavior of CT (27.47%) indicated in Table3: whenever the PE-STs talks about:

Assiduity: SomePE-STsclaim thatthe CTsarrive late. There’sno feedbackand does not transmitinstructions. Some of PE-ST said: “Every dayCTarrives late,I’m obliged towaitor callingby phoneto see if itcomes ornot” (PE-ST 40). “CT arrives late;in additionthere isno feedback” (PE-ST 9). “CT is always late(sometimesabsent)” (PE-ST 20). “CT ispresentabsent.Theonlyrolethat knows to doissigningoneducational sheets. There’sno feedbackand does not transmitinstructions”(PE-ST 2).

Psychological condition:Some PE-STsclaim thattheCTsdemoralize themwithnegativeremarks.Theyrequire PE-STsto makeastain with anaggressivemanner.Somestudentsaidthatare notindependentduring training. Some of PE-ST said: “CTnevertold methepositivefeedback, it’s always addressedwitha wrong waywith the traineeuntildemoralize” (PE-ST 11). “She’s stillangryand shealways speaksin a bad way” (PE-ST 25). “CT forcesme to dotasksthat hedoes notwhen he teaches. It forcesme totracing theground of anaggressivemanner” (PE-ST 11). “CTis not autonomousin training. He takesopinion ofthe otherCTand will notsupportme” (PE-ST 24).

PE-ST motivation:Some PE-STsclaim thatthe CTunderestimatestheirwork.Itdoesn’t encourage themto progress. Some of PE-ST said: “CTunderestimatesmy work” (PE-ST 5). “CT does not encourageworking better and evolving.It makes medemoralize” (PE-ST 25). “Despitethe effort, there’s nocongratulation (PE-ST 27).Shealways saysnothing works” (PE-ST 34). “CT is opposedto the positivecommentsthat the supervisortold(PE-ST 11). Communication skills:Some PE-STsreport thatthe student has alanguage notappropriate to training. Some of PE-ST said: “CT hasa very poorlanguage in relationto the trainingthat I learn” (PE-ST 20). “CTalways talksabout thenegativespoint” (PE-ST 25).

According to Martineau & Vallerand (2005) noviceexperiencingdifficulties related tohourlyconditions, task,teachingdiscipline, constant adaptation, security processes.Thisgreatlyharms thembecausealreadyin September, students will beexcessivestress.A temporary solutionwould be thatthe school administrationmakes availableto thenew teacher,with atalentedcolleagueora mentor (Martineau & Vallerand, 2005) .

Martineau & Vallerand (2005) propose thatthe administrative teamattachesimportanceto the working conditionsfor beginning teachersto enable them tosuccessfully enterthe profession.

Gold (1996) distinguishes between twocategories of support: support for teaching(“instructional support”) and psychological support.Support foreducationconcerning assistancetothe acquisition of knowledge, skills and strategies neededto succeedin the classroom andwithin theschool.This supportmay consist ofan instrumentalassistance, informational (advice, information) and evaluative(feedback).Psychological support, reporting ahumanist perspective, is designed to satisfy thepersonal needsfelt bybeginners.Itincludes bothemotional support(empathetic listening, encouragement, confidence), the evaluative support(need to be reassured and confirmed) and support for thedevelopment of identity(self-confidence, feeling of efficacy, positive self-esteem andmanagementstress). Psychological supportcan also helpbeginning teachersto developresilience todifficult conditionsfor entryto theprofessional life(job insecurity, insecurity,heavy workload, difficultclass groups), to develop apositive self-imageas a teacher andmaintaina positive relationshipto the profession.

According to Parmentier (2003) CT should reassure PE-ST on the conditions of operation of the training and about the relevance of their presence. This security intervenes from the start and should be confirmed throughout the training. In addition, CTs will allow the PE-ST to become actors of their own training. It confirms that PE-STs will be active, the more they store the content of the training. PE-STs must be involved throughout the course.

The relationship of CT(9.15%)indicated in Table3: whenever the PE-STs talks about:

Relationship with the PE-ST:Some PE-STsfind thatthe CTdoesn’t behavethe samewaywithall PE-STs.Itdoesn’t behavewith the PE-ST as afuturecolleague, it leaves the otherteachersdisruptstheirrelationship. Some of PE-ST said: “At firstI thought thatwill be easy tointegrate into the lifeof the trainingbut Ifound the opposite. CTdoes not behavewith the samewaywithall PE-ST.It promotesduring thefeedbackon each otherandmakes it justbecause his parentswork at the department” (PE-ST 40). “CT must behavewith the PE-ST as afuturecolleague, do notlet him askto gobuy a coffee” (PE-ST 1). “There’s ateacher whotries to makea disturbancein my relationship withthecoach. Helet it” (PE-ST 6). “CTbelieves that thestudentis a trueteacher whohas skillsand experience(PE-ST 27).

Relationship with the administration: Some PE-STsreport thatthe CT notpresents themattheadministrativestaff. Some of PE-ST said: “CT does not fulfillhis role asCT.CT had notintroducedme to theadministrativestaff.He asks usto work on theplaceof the PE-ST absent” (PE-ST 11).

Relationship with the student: Some PE-STssaythat the CTrequires themto excludeanduseverbal and physicalviolencewith students. Some of PE-ST said: “In the case ofpunishmentof students,the firstdecisionthat CT prefersit is the exclusionof the student” (PE-ST 18). “CT put methe responsibility to collect moneytothe school teambut I refused. He accused meof notmasteringthe class.After collectingmoney fromstudents, CT noted absenteestudentswho have notbrought money. CTusesverbal and physicalviolencewith students andgives me thegreen light to dolike him. He teachesmy classan extrahourwhere studentspracticethree hours aweek andthattheirgames.Students findmy sessionlessmotivatingthanhim.Itputs mein difficultywith students” (PE-ST 11).

According Mukamurera et al. (2013) the beginningin the professionremainsoften problematic andstressful. Manystudents livewhat is commonly calledthe shockof reality.Thisshock has adestabilizationeffect, disappointments andquestioned.Hecharacterizedthe feeling ofsurvival, to feel the pedagogicalincompetenceorimpotenceand vulnerability, andto constantlyadapt to acomplex and changing environment. During their initial training, students should suddenlygo fromstudent statusto the teacher whoisengagingin the professionalof teaching (Mukamurera, 2005;Bali,2014).

According to Martineau et al. (2010) theprofessional integration ofteachersis a difficult timeof life at work, during which the PE-STis confronted with amultitude of experiencesand new situationsthat mustadapt quickly.Without support,it is verydifficult fornovice teachersto get throughthiscruciallevelofprofessional development.

According to Perez-Roux (2012) recognition enhancesthe interpersonal skillsof the individual andthe moral principlesunderlying. These are essentialfor CTandPE-STto operate.The sharing ofvalues between theCT andPE-STis a formof recognition;it’s a reportto the professionwhich organizesdaily activities.Apart from therelationalarticulatingself-esteemand recognitionof others,the biographicaldimension meansfor the individualto be recognized forwhat it is andforwhat he has experienced. Also, PE-ST often feels lostbecause they donotknowthe functioning of theschool orthe habitsof teachersin place andmust adaptto theseinnovations (Martineau et al., 2010) .

According to Martineau & Mukamurera (2012) it’s essential thatPE-ST appropriateoperating rules, expectations and culture ofthe community toexercise theprofessional roleand be acceptedas a member.The introduction ofESrefers tothe adaptationand masteryof the professional rolein the developmentof knowledge andskills specific tothe profession.This isknowledge “teach the class”, to becomeeffective inthe work according toprofessional skills expected.

Ndoreraho &Martineau (2006) report that the difficulties experienced by PE-ST during their professional integration period such as stress in his functions and teaching in an unfavorable environment negatively affect their interest in applying the teaching profession. In the following, these difficulties are the cause of their profession abandonment.

According to Bremond (2013) the CT said they did notunderstand whatthey could bring toPE-STs who experiencing difficulties to control her students. Whereas the CTs considers that PE-STs was leaving aneducationthat developsthe management class. Martineau et al. (2010) argue that the lack of experienceof beginning teachersmakes it difficult to solveeveryday problemsparticularlytheclassroom management. The CT spell outthat the problemswith the organization arethe symptom ofa particular difficultyto the PE-STthat should bequestioned.

These results are justified by Dugal (2003) who asserts that the CTwant tohelpand secure thePE-STthey have the chargeto accompany; which is reflectedby preoccupationsoriented to the organization and the classroom managementasto thecontent to be taught.

In the same direction, results ofstudies conducted by Buyse et al. (2008) emphasize the importance of establishinga positive relationshipbetween teacher andpupils withdifficult behaviorin the classroom.They point outthat the interventionshould not bedirected solelytothe student, as is often the case. According to Hamre & Pianta (2005) , students should concentrate effortson the climate ofthe class, as an important influenceon the development ofschoolbehavior problems.They add thatthe teacher mustestablisha relationship of trustwith studentsby usingeffectiveclassroom managementpractices.

(27.5%) PE-STs respond that there’sno difference between the conception of PE-ST of theroleof CT by PE-STs beforeandduring the internship. Some of PE-ST said: CT arriveson time, put at my disposalthe available material, behaves welland transmitsdidactic and pedagogicaladvice(PE-ST 5). There is notmuch difference betweenthe conception andthe realbecause I’m satisfied and Ilearnedfrom the experience ofCT.hetransmits any informationof students, equipment and the high school.CT makes herrole; she evokes thesmalldetailsthatI do not takeinto account.Sideof therelationship,sherespects me(PE-ST 6).At the beginningof the academic yearI’m lostbut withthe help andadviceCTI arrivedto takeplace in theprofessional life.Nodifferencein the establishment, there is agood relationship betweenphysical education teachers. Weare a family. Atthefirstschool semesterCT correctpedagogicalvoice andcorrect thebehavior.During thesecondsemesterCTis interestedtomanaging timeand space,student learningand itgives solutionsto the conceptionof the session(PE-ST 10). No differencebut ISSEPmustdorefresher trainingto innovatethe level of knowledgeof CT (PE-ST 15).

According to PE-STs (72. 5%),there’s adifferencebetween the conceptionof theroleof CT by PE-STs beforeandduring the internship. For some PE-ST, there is nota CTinthe course.In addition, CT does not fulfill itsrole. There’s onlyCTwhocontrolthe presence andsignonpedagogicsheets. Accordingtoanother student, there is a contradictionbetween academictraining andinternship.CTs focus advice on the pedagogical side and forget thedidacticside. PE-STs requestfor CTs toreally help. Someof themhatedthe framer, the internship and training. Some of PE-ST said: A 180 degree offset. Actually there’s not CTduring the internship, there’s a CT who control the presence and sign on pedagogic sheets (PE-ST 2). There’s a difference between conception and reality, there’s a contradiction between academic training and internship. CT focuses the advice on the pedagogical side and forgets the didactic side (PE-ST 4). CT does not work properly (PE-ST 19). It does totally oppose, CT will help me to form, but it makes me feel like a student. Now Ihate myCT, the training and education inthe school(PE-ST 20).There’s a difference between conception and reality. I imagined that I will find a CT who helps the PE-ST. I found the opposite, a CT who thinks that the PE-ST is a teacher confirms (PE-ST 27). There is a difference between conception and the real, the CTdoes not make his role, and he mixes professional with emotions and relational. I’m very shocking reality. I never imagined this disaster. I work with my own effort, no person accompage me (PE-ST 32). ). There’s a wide difference between what I imagined and I actually met him, I am completely disappointed. There is no link between what I conceived, and what I found (PE-ST 25).

ByPaquay&Perrenoud(2002)the majority of CTscome from the worldof teachers.They wereschool teachers, orcollegeor high school, sharing between teachingin theirestablishment andtrainingfunction.

Paquay&Perrenoud(2002) point out that the title ofCT is ambiguous.This titledoes not matchwhat is recordedin administrative documents, talkingteacher, methodologist, psychologistand educationalist.

Mouton (2009) finds that there is a great illusion to believe that CT is able to respond effectively to the requirements of a trainee engaged with a problem situation. He added that the CT is neither a scientist nor an expert, but a professional who organizes a training environment in a role to introduce PE-STs in the teaching profession. In this approach, Leriche et al. (2010) believe that internships are not sufficient to promote the development of professional teaching skills. The success of this company seems strongly associated with accompanying practices implemented by the CT. Bergevin(2007) points out that mentoringrequiresthe selection ofmentorsbased on specific criteria. He added thatthe role ofmentors inthe dyadremains tobe clarifiedand the trainingthat hereceivestofulfill its role. By Rocque & Bernier (2013) the worldof modern educationrunsanother formschool dropoutthanexperienced bystudents: the teachers.TheprofessionBeginners oftenleaves workin their firstyears of teaching.

In fact, Fontaine et al. (2011) estimate that20%in New Zealandthe number of newteachersleaving the professionsecondary schoolin their first fiveyears of teaching.For herpart, Finlandnumber10% to 12%theprofession’sdropout ratein thefirst four years. Gohier et al. (2007) makethe same observationfor Quebec,North Americaand Europe witha dropout rateamounting to20%.In the US, the dropout ratewould be 30%to 50%.

Maela (2002) states that todaythose who formulatean accompanyingdemandare no longerthose who expresseda desire forpersonal development; these arepeople facingexistentialmalaise,imbricatedin situations whereit’s difficult toseparate theindividual problemof the social context. Maela (2002) concluded that the relationshipwas no longerreducible toa dual relationshipbetween CTand PE-ST;it must takeinto account the relationshipwhichintegrates witha social contextat large.

4. Conclusions

Remember that we have described here only part of results of our doctoral research, which is still in progress. Our findings are partial because they only reflect the vision of part of the PE-ST involved in the conceptions of the role of the CT and the accompaniments practices. Nevertheless, in light of our data it’s possible to declare that the accompaniments practices in Tunisian schools are not very active in providing support toPE-STs.We are far froman ideal situationand theaccompanimentspracticalfolder mustcontinue toassert itsprioritydimensionto theschool environment.This is necessarybecause wefindgreat variability inthe role of CT andacademicprograms andyetthere is noformalprofilein Tunisiato markthestandardsofschoolactions.

Also inconnection withthe accompanyingpractices currentlyin Tunisia,ourresults suggestthat they pursuedifferent aims, some more prevalentthan others.Alsowe seethat theaccompanimentspracticesdo not offerquite a varietyof choicesfor content, intervention and support.One thinks of the necessity of the training workshops, mentoring and knowledge transmitted.It is, however, regrettablethattheaccompanimentspracticesdo not includevaluationtaskfor PE-ST.

In summary, the problems regarding content, intervention and supportseemthat obviouslyhave a negative impactonthe professional training ofteachingstudents, whichis not beneficialfor insertionin schoolsandthe teaching profession.This findingshouldhold the attention ofofficialsof the training andget them tosupport the realization ofimprovementsthat some of ourrespondents consideras necessary toincreasetheaccompanimentspractices.

Thus, we cantake the risk tosay that thepractices ofaccompanimentsrecord ofTunisian PE-STs are called fornew developments inthe near future.Data frombeginning teachersbringprobablylighting andcomplementarylines of inquiryforimproving the roleof the student andofaccompanimentspractices.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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