Conceptual Framework of the Evolution of Self-Initiative Expatriates in a Global Landscape


The primary objective of this study is to enhance comprehension of self-initiated expatriation in the context of the global work environment by constructing a conceptual framework. Based on a thorough examination of current literature, our research investigates the complex mechanisms that drive individuals to actively seek employment possibilities in foreign countries, distinguishing this phenomenon from traditional organizational assignments. The main driving forces include independence, individual and career development, international connections, and opportunities for progress. The research methodology entails conducting a thorough examination of pertinent literature about self-initiated expatriation. We acknowledge the significance of cultural awareness, adaptability, and a proactive attitude in influencing the achievements of self-initiated expatriates in a worldwide community. This phenomenon is analyzed by studying the decision-making processes involved, with a specific focus on acquiring information, evaluating risks, and establishing objectives. The results highlight the influence of many factors such as diversity, environment, global mobility, and personal characteristics on the growth of self-initiated expatriates. The study emphasizes the importance of individual characteristics, external support structures, and ecosystems that enable expatriates to take initiative on their own. In addition, the study examines the professional paths, impacts on organizations, and social and cultural contributions of self-motivated individuals living abroad. This conceptual framework offers a thorough understanding of the motivations, decision-making processes, adaptability, repercussions, and influential factors related to the global change in work paradigms. Gaining a profound comprehension of this subject is essential for individuals, organizations, and governments as they navigate the ever-changing global work environments.

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Yussuf, O. (2024) Conceptual Framework of the Evolution of Self-Initiative Expatriates in a Global Landscape. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 12, 45-80. doi: 10.4236/jhrss.2024.121004.

1. Introduction

The first part of this article provides a thorough analysis of the material that covers the topic of self-directed expatriates. The first thing that needs to be done is come up with a precise description of self-initiative expatriates and emphasizes how important it is to look into their evolutionary path. The goals of the study are also outlined in this section. In the section on historical background, the emergence of self-initiative expatriates is investigated, with early examples and the underlying factors that permitted their proliferation being highlighted and discussed. This study also explores the impact that globalization has had on individuals who have chosen to live and work abroad on their own initiative. The following section goes deeper into the characteristics and motivating elements connected with self-initiative expatriates. This section covers the predominant qualities of self-initiative expats as well as the motivations that lie behind their decision to pursue this path.

The current survey also takes a look at the challenges that are faced by expatriates who go abroad on their own initiative. In conclusion, this study investigates the repercussions of self-initiated expatriation as well as the future tendencies related with this phenomenon. It explores the economic, social, and cultural ramifications of this occurrence, as well as the potential future advances that could occur within this field. This introduction will provide a brief discussion of the theoretical framework, describing the research gap as well as the problematization, and will conclude with some thoughts on the more general subject matter. Within the framework of the international labor force, an investigation of the growth of self-initiative among expatriates is of significant importance. The primary purpose of the conceptual framework is to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the fundamental elements that have an effect on the growth and development of self-initiative among expatriates. In order to reach this goal, it is essential to investigate several theories about the administration of expatriates as well as the specific factors that contribute to the progression of their circumstances throughout the course of time. The purpose of the conceptual framework is to provide an all-encompassing understanding of the myriad of factors at play and the impact those factors have on self-directed expatriates. In addition, this research will investigate the pragmatic ramifications for both organizations and individuals, with an emphasis on prospective paths for further research and examination. Through conducting an analysis of the development of self-initiative expatriates, we will be able to gain a deeper comprehension of this demography as well as the relevance it holds within the context of the global labor market.

The concept of self-initiative expatriates represents a substantial revolution in the sphere of overseas work experiences and signifies a break from traditional organizational techniques of global mobility (Doherty, 2013; Inkson et al., 1997) . Self-initiative expatriates are people who move abroad on their own initiative rather than being sent there by their employers (Doherty, 2013) . This preliminary effort is meant to serve as a foundational inquiry into a theoretical framework with the goal of analyzing and comprehending the intricate facets of this emergent phenomenon. According to Inkson et al. (1997) , in the past, corporations were primarily responsible for facilitating the act of expatriation. These corporations would strategically allocate persons in order to fulfill their corporate goals. Nevertheless, there has been a discernible increase in the number of individuals who are actively seeking international work opportunities and expanding their careers beyond national boundaries through self-driven endeavors (Rodriguez & Scurry). According to Tharenou (2013) , the process of progression in professional routes on a global scale has been influenced by a combination of socio-economic, technological, and personal elements. These factors have been examined in both of these scholarly works.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the multifaceted phenomena of self-initiated expatriates within the framework of their recent employment opportunities overseas. This research intends to provide a full knowledge of the numerous complexities involved with this dynamic and evolving paradigm (Tharenou, 2013) . To do this, a structured framework will be utilized in the study. The purpose of this framework is to conduct an investigation of the factors—including motives, decision-making processes, adaption obstacles, results, and important factors—that contribute to the success of persons who are beginning foreign work experiences. The framework outlines essential characteristics and influential aspects in this setting by drawing from the research conducted by Cooke (2009) . In addition, it has been stated that the idea of self-initiative expatriates (SIEs) gives a complete viewpoint that sheds light on the substantial alterations in global labor dynamics that are responsible for the establishment of this group (Selmer, 2001; Naumann, 1993) . This is because the SIEs are accountable for the emergence of this group. This study aims to reconcile the discrepancy between traditional organizational viewpoints on expatriation and the rising phenomena of individual-driven global career aspirations (Andresen et al., 2014) . The conventional organizational viewpoints on expatriation are based on the assumption that individuals are sent abroad by their employers. The purpose of this work is to create a complete foundation for comprehending the revolutionary growth that has taken place in the current professional environment.

1.1. Definition of Self-Initiative Expatriates

Self-initiative expatriates (SIEs) are persons who autonomously establish and undertake abroad assignments without the requirement or support of their respective employers (Andresen & Biemann, 2012) . These individuals who reside outside their home country proactively choose to engage in employment overseas with the aim of pursuing professional development or personal enrichment prospects. The knowledge of the evolving dynamics of the global workforce is being enhanced by the growing significance of the idea of Self-Initiative Expatriates (Doherty et al., 2011) .

The objective of this part is to present a concise and precise delineation of Self-Initiative Expatriates, elucidating their unique attributes and driving factors. This section establishes the groundwork for analyzing the development of Self-Initiative Expatriates and comprehending its importance within the wider framework of global mobility. Self-initiative expatriates refer to individuals who make the voluntary decision to reside and engage in employment activities in a foreign country for personal and professional motives, without being mandated or directed by any organization or governmental entity (Suutari & Brewster, 2000) . This definition of self-initiative expats offers a comprehensive comprehension of their identity and the factors that set them apart from other categories of expatriates. Through an analysis of their distinctive attributes and underlying incentives, a deeper understanding may be attained regarding the factors that drive individuals to pursue a self-initiated expatriate lifestyle, as well as the prevalent obstacles they encounter (Jokinen, Brewster, & Suutari, 2008) .

It is crucial to get insight into the development of self-initiative expatriates in order to fully grasp the economic, social, and cultural consequences they impose on both their countries of origin and destination (Myers & Pringle, 2005) . Furthermore, the examination of prospective patterns in self-initiative expatriation might assist in the anticipation and adjustment to the evolving dynamics of international mobility. Self-initiative expatriates are a unique group within the field of global mobility. These individuals independently and actively pursue international work opportunities without being directly assigned or mandated by their organizations (Selmer & Lauring, 2010) . The group of expatriates being referred to in this context deviates from the conventional model in which enterprises were the main drivers of abroad assignments (Jokinen et al., 2008) .

The term “designation” refers to a group of persons who undertake international travel on their own accord, motivated by personal reasons, a desire for professional development, and a quest for exposure to other cultures (Selmer, 2006, 2010) . Individuals engage in proactive efforts to seek out international possibilities, utilizing personal networks, online resources, and global connections to obtain employment, projects, or entrepreneurial endeavors in foreign nations (Froese & Peltokorpi, 2013) . The salient feature of self-initiative expatriates pertains to their autonomous and self-driven approach towards engaging in international mobility. Individuals assume responsibility for their career trajectories by consciously selecting opportunities to engage in varied work settings, frequently pursuing positions that correspond with their abilities, passions, and ambitions for personal and vocational growth (Malek & Budhwar, 2013) .

Expatriates exhibit a proactive attitude towards international encounters, displaying qualities such as adaptability, resilience, and self-reliance in effectively navigating the intricate dynamics of cross-cultural integration. The objectives of individuals frequently transcend just professional progression, embracing a sincere inquisitiveness towards diverse cultures, languages, and lifestyles. Self-initiative expatriates have a significant role in shaping the dynamic nature of international labor markets, since they bring with them a wide range of talents, viewpoints, and experiences (Konopaske & Werner, 2005) . The increasing significance of personal agency in navigating the complexities of a globalized world is exemplified by individuals’ autonomy in seeking and shaping international opportunities, which signifies a paradigm shift in the way they engage with and pursue global career trajectories (Kühlmann & Hutchings, 2010) .

1.2. Importance of Studying the Evolution of Self-Initiative Expatriates

The significance of examining the evolution of self-initiative expatriates resides in comprehending the shifting dynamics of the global labor force. The objective of this study is to investigate the determinants that shape the progression of self-initiative expatriates and ascertain the fundamental aspects of their growth. This conceptual framework seeks to provide practical insights for businesses and individuals by analyzing expatriate management theories and the role of self-initiative expatriates in the global workforce. Moreover, it elucidates areas of research that have not been well addressed and suggests potential avenues for future investigation in this particular domain. Gaining insight into the development of self-initiative expatriates is of paramount importance for both companies and individuals in effectively managing the intricacies of an ever more interconnected global landscape.

The examination of the evolutionary patterns of self-initiative expatriates holds significant academic value, given its increasing relevance in the contemporary international context. The aforementioned persons are of utmost importance in influencing the composition of the international labor force and making significant contributions to the advancement of economic growth (Cao et al., 2013) . Hence, it is imperative for organizations and governments to comprehend the underlying dynamics that have contributed to the emergence of self-initiative expatriates. By doing an analysis of the historical context and initial instances of self-initiative expats, one can acquire valuable insights on their motivations and shared traits (Cerdin & Selmer, 2014) . Furthermore, conducting an investigation into the obstacles encountered by self-motivated expatriates might yield useful insights for improving their assistance and overall welfare. In addition, doing an examination of the economic, social, and cultural ramifications associated with self-initiative expatriation can facilitate the prediction of forthcoming patterns and the formulation of proficient approaches to effectively handle this phenomenon (Doherty, 2013) .

In general, the examination of the development of self-initiative expatriates provides significant contributions to comprehending the evolving dynamics of global mobility and its effects on persons and society (Froese, 2012) . The examination of the evolutionary patterns exhibited by self-initiative expatriates is of considerable significance in comprehending the evolving dynamics of global workforces and the shifting paradigms in foreign career paths (Froese & Peltokorpi, 2013) . There are several crucial factors that highlight the need of investigating this growing phenomenon: An Examination of Evolving Work Dynamics: Gaining a comprehensive understanding of the emergence of self-initiative expatriates offers significant academic contributions towards comprehending the dynamic transformations occurring within the realm of employment. The study conducted by Howe-Walsh and Schyns (2010) provides insights into the growing trend of individuals taking more control over their career paths, which in turn challenges conventional organizational structures and hierarchical methods of global mobility.

The phenomenon of organizational adaptation and its implications for talent acquisition, retention, and management techniques have been recognized as a valuable area of study (Jokinen et al., 2008) . By acknowledging and making provisions for the ambitions of self-motivated expatriates, organizations may effectively leverage varied talent pools and formulate approaches to attract and retain exceptional personnel. The topic of discussion is the concept of global workforce diversity and inclusion, as explored by Lo et al. (2012) . The examination of self-initiative expatriates makes a valuable contribution to the discourse surrounding diversity and inclusion within international work environments. This underscores the significance of accepting a wide range of ideas, cultures, and experiences, hence building work settings that are more inclusive. Insights for Policy and Education: A Comprehensive Analysis Research on self-initiative expatriates can be utilized by governments and educational institutions to inform policy-making, develop educational programs, and provide support systems that are specifically designed to address the unique requirements of persons who actively seek foreign opportunities on their own (Myers & Pringle, 2005) . Comprehending the Motivations of Individuals in their Careers Examining this phenomenon provides valuable insights into the underlying motives and goals of individuals within the contemporary labor force. The aforementioned study conducted by Peltokorpi and Froese (2009) contributes to the enhancement of comprehension about the underlying motivations that prompt professionals to pursue overseas experiences.

This research holds significant value for career counselors and professionals, as it equips them with valuable insights to effectively guide individuals towards the attainment of meaningful career choices. This study aims to explore the extensive cultural and socioeconomic repercussions associated with persons migrating across national borders in pursuit of employment opportunities. The aforementioned study by Suutari and Brewster (2000) explores the role of overseas experiences in shaping human identities, as well as their impact on cross-cultural understanding and global connection. Conducting research on the evolutionary aspects of self-initiative expatriates facilitates the identification of success determinants, encompassing both individual and organizational dimensions. Tharenou (2013) asserts that gaining an understanding of the various personalities, talents, and support systems that play a role in facilitating successful foreign experiences can provide valuable insights for both expatriates and the enterprises they collaborate with. Understanding the dynamic nature of global jobs necessitates a thorough examination of the growth of self-initiative expatriates. The article by Al Ariss (2010) presents a comprehensive analysis of various factors such as individual agency, organizational dynamics, cultural integration, and societal implications. The insights provided in this study have significant implications for policy-making, organizational strategies, and individual career development in the context of a rapidly globalizing world.

1.3. Purpose of the Conceptual Framework

The primary objective of the conceptual framework is to establish a theoretical basis for comprehending the development of self-initiative expatriates. The objective of this framework is to discern and investigate the fundamental aspects that contribute to the development of these persons in the international labor market. Through an analysis of expatriate management theories and the impact of external and internal factors, this framework aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of self-initiative expats throughout the course of time. The primary objective of this framework is to offer pragmatic consequences for both organizations and individuals, while also pinpointing areas of research that have not yet been explored and suggesting potential avenues for further investigation in this particular sector.

The primary aims of the conceptual framework pertaining to self-initiative expatriates are to provide a comprehensive understanding of the underlying motives, factors, problems, and rewards associated with this specific form of expatriation (Cerdin & Pargneux, 2010) . The objective of this framework is to offer a comprehensive comprehension of the factors influencing individuals’ decision to become self-initiative expatriates, including personal motivations, economic circumstances, and social and cultural influences (Doherty et al., 2011) . The objective of this study is to provide light on the various obstacles that self-motivated expatriates may encounter in their worldwide pursuits, encompassing linguistic limitations, legal and administrative complexities, as well as difficulty in adapting to different cultures (Jokinen et al., 2008) .

In addition, the framework examines the prospective advantages and consequences associated with selecting this trajectory, including advancements in one’s professional capabilities, prospects for career progression, enrichment of cultural understanding, personal maturation, and the contributions made to the economic landscapes of both the home and host nations (Tharenou & Caulfield, 2010) . The conceptual framework gives unique insights into the phenomenon of self-initiative expatriation and serves as a basis for future study and analysis in this area.

The conceptual framework of self-initiative expatriates plays a pivotal role in comprehending and examining the dynamic phenomenon of expatriation and its structural implications. The framework offers a systematic methodology for understanding the complex characteristics of self-initiative expatriates. The statement outlines essential characteristics and interconnected aspects, providing a structured approach to categorize and analyze this developing phenomenon. The inclusion of multiple dimensions of self-initiative expatriation, such as motivations, decision-making processes, adaption obstacles, outcomes, and success factors, enables a thorough examination and evaluation of the phenomenon (Biemann & Andresen, 2010) . The comprehensive perspective facilitates a more profound examination of the intricacies inherent in this dynamic environment.

The framework functions as a valuable tool for scholars, educators, and professionals who are interested in doing research or gaining insights about the phenomenon of self-initiative expatriates. The aforementioned study by Cao et al. (2012) presents a comprehensive framework that delineates many routes for inquiry. This framework serves as a guide, facilitating the exploration of diverse elements and enabling the execution of systematic investigations. The dissemination of organizational strategies: The conceptual framework provides organizations with valuable insights into the motives and experiences of self-initiative expatriates. The acquisition of this knowledge has the potential to enhance talent management strategies, foreign assignment rules, and support systems that are specifically designed to meet the unique requirements of these persons (Chen, 2012) . The focus of this discussion centers around the areas of policy development and educational programs. The framework can be utilized by governments, politicians, and educational institutions to formulate legislation and design educational programs that facilitate the aspirations of persons who are actively pursuing overseas experiences of their own accord. It assists in formulating activities that promote seamless transitions and amplify the advantages of such endeavors.

Advancement in Comprehension of Professional Dynamics This framework can be utilized by professionals in the fields of career counseling, coaching, and human resources to enhance their understanding of the motivations and objectives of persons who are seeking self-initiative expatriation (Dorsch et al., 2013) . This comprehension facilitates the provision of more customized coaching and assistance for the advancement of one’s profession. The task at hand involves the identification of gaps and opportunities. The framework effectively reveals gaps in knowledge, areas that warrant additional investigation, and potential for improvements in fostering self-initiative expatriates by emphasizing numerous aspects and characteristics. The phenomenon stimulates continuous improvement and development of techniques and procedures for providing assistance (Froese, 2012) .

The contributions of self-initiative expatriates to the facilitation of cross-cultural understanding are valuable in the context of broader discussions on cross-cultural interactions. These experiences aid in fostering a more profound comprehension of cultural integration, identity development, and global interconnectedness (Peltokorpi & Froese, 2009) .

2. Theoretical Background

The theoretical framework component of this study examines two primary domains: expatriate management theories and the significance of self-initiative expatriates in the global labor market. Additionally, this study investigates the various aspects that impact the development of self-initiative expatriates. Theoretical frameworks serve as a fundamental basis for comprehending the concepts and aspects related to the development of self-initiative expats. Through an analysis of prevailing theories and empirical studies, the objective of this part is to build a full comprehension of the subject matter. In this investigation, the conceptual framework section will expand upon the aforementioned theories and present fundamental features pertaining to the development of self-initiative expatriates (Selmer & Lauring, 2010) . The subsequent part, namely “Implications and Future Research,” will examine the practical consequences for both organizations and individuals, as well as identify areas of research that require further investigation and suggest potential future routes for development. In its whole, this section plays a vital role in establishing the fundamental basis for the subsequent portions of the article.

The origin and evolution of self-initiative expatriates can be understood through many theoretical perspectives that shed light on the motivations, decision-making processes, and consequences related to this phenomena (Thorn, 2009) . Multiple theoretical frameworks contribute to the comprehension of this paradigm shift in global work dynamics. One such framework is Human capital theory, which suggests that individuals make investments in acquiring skills, information, and experiences in order to improve their marketability and prospects in their careers (Vaiman & Haslberger, 2013) . Self-initiative expats are in accordance with this theory as they proactively pursue overseas experiences in order to expand their skill sets and enhance their human capital. They acknowledge the significance of varied experiences in furthering their professional trajectories (Vance, 2005) . Professional construction theory places significant emphasis on the pivotal role of individual agency in the development and effective management of one’s professional path.

Self-initiative expatriates demonstrate the aforementioned principle through their proactive efforts to mold their international work experiences in accordance with their individual values, interests, and objectives. Moreover, Social capital theory highlights the significance of social networks and linkages in the facilitation of resource acquisition and the exploration of opportunities. Self-initiated expatriates utilize their social capital by utilizing personal networks, professional connections, and online platforms to seek and secure overseas opportunities. Similarly, the theory of cross-cultural adaptation centers on the phenomenon of individuals undergoing a process of adjustment when they are exposed to unfamiliar cultural contexts. Self-initiated expats autonomously manage this process, independently encountering and adjusting to a wide range of cultural situations as they assimilate into novel work environments. In a similar vein, Motivation Theories, such as the self-determination theory, emphasize the role of intrinsic motives in influencing human behavior. Self-initiated expats are frequently driven by internal motivators such as autonomy, personal development, curiosity, and a desire for novel experiences, as opposed to being influenced by external demands or obligations.

The boundary less career theory presents a challenge to conventional career trajectories, emphasizing the growing dynamism and unpredictability inherent in contemporary job routes. The concept of self-initiative expatriates is exemplified by individuals who surpass geographical and organizational limitations, actively shaping their own international career paths (Doherty, 2010) . Similarly, the theory of cultural intelligence places significant emphasis on the capacity to effectively navigate and operate within environments characterized by cultural diversity. According to Chen et al. (2023) , expatriates who demonstrate self-initiative frequently demonstrate elevated levels of cultural intelligence, enabling them to effectively navigate and prosper in many cultural environments.

The term “identical” refers to objects or entities that are exactly the same in all Theoretical frameworks pertaining to job selection and decision-making provide valuable perspectives on the various aspects that influence individuals’ choices to engage in self-initiated expatriation. These theoretical frameworks examine the influence of information processing, risk assessment, and goal setting on the creation of career choices. In brief, the theoretical underpinnings of self-initiative expatriates are derived from a range of theoretical frameworks, shedding light on the motives, actions, and results linked to persons who independently pursue overseas employment opportunities. The aforementioned ideas collectively provide valuable insights into comprehending the intricate and multifaceted nature of self-initiated global careers (Inkson & Richardson, 2010) .

2.1. Expatriate Management Theories

The next section delves into the theoretical underpinnings of self-initiative expatriates within the realm of Expatriate Management Theories. This section centers on the diverse theories and models that have been established to comprehend the management of expatriates in a broad sense. The aforementioned theories serve as a basis for comprehending the particular difficulties and advantages encountered by self-initiative expatriates within the global labor market (Black et al., 1991) . Through an examination of these ideas, valuable insights may be obtained regarding the elements that exert effect on the development of self-initiative expatriates. This analysis also facilitates a deeper comprehension of the fundamental dimensions that contribute to shaping their unique experiences (Agha-Alikhani et al., 2018) . This section aims to build a theoretical framework for the remaining portions of the study, which will focus on examining the various aspects of the growth of self-initiative expatriates and investigating the practical ramifications for both organizations and individuals.

According to a study conducted by Al Ariss and Crowley-Henry (2013) , additionally, it will ascertain areas of research that have not been well addressed and provide recommendations for future investigations in this particular subject. Theoretical frameworks in expatriate management provide guidance for firms to successfully oversee their staff operating in foreign nations. These ideas comprise a range of tactics that are designed to facilitate the achievement of successful expatriate assignments. There exist several important theories in the field of expatriate management. The concept of agency theory places significant emphasis on the dynamic between the principle, which refers to the organization, and the agent, who is represented by the expatriate employee (Andresen et al., 2012) .

The primary objective of this approach is to establish congruence between the objectives of expats and the business, hence minimizing conflicts. This is achieved through the development of compensation, incentive, and performance evaluation systems that effectively incentivize expatriates to prioritize the firm’s best interests. Subsequent to the Resource-Based View (RBV) The Resource-Based View (RBV) framework analyzes the impact of an organization’s resources, encompassing elements like human capital, namely skilled expatriates, on its ability to achieve a competitive advantage (Andresen & Muskat, 2021) . Expatriates are perceived as significant assets whose distinct talents and knowledge have the potential to generate a competitive advantage when efficiently managed and utilized.

The concept of Social Exchange Theory examines the interactions and connections between individuals and organizations, with a particular focus on the principles of mutual advantages and reciprocity (Andresen et al., 2020a) . Within the realm of expatriate management, there is a notable emphasis on cultivating favorable relationships, establishing trust, and providing support between the business and expatriates in order to augment their commitment levels and overall performance. Following that, the notion of cultural distance places emphasis on the influence of cultural disparities between the country of origin and the country of residence on expatriate placements (Andresen et al., 2020b) . The proposition posits that expatriates may encounter more substantial difficulties in acclimating to a new workplace when faced with a bigger cultural disparity, necessitating the implementation of targeted management approaches. Therefore, theories such as the U-Curve and W-Curve models, which fall under the category of Adjustment and Adaptation Theories, provide a framework for understanding the sequential stages of adjustment and adaptation experienced by expatriates upon relocating to a foreign nation. Andresen et al. (2020c) gaining a comprehensive comprehension of these models enables businesses to effectively offer assistance at different phases, hence facilitating seamless transitions.

Role theory is a theoretical framework that investigates the norms and actions linked to particular social situations, such as the role of an expatriate within an organizational context (Brewster et al., 2021) . Organizations benefit from the establishment of clear role expectations, responsibilities, and performance standards for expatriates, as it enables them to efficiently fulfill their functions. The Dual concern theory is a framework that emphasizes the need to effectively manage the integration of global strategy and local responsiveness (Ceric & Crawford, 2016) . Within the realm of expatriate management, the aforementioned theory serves as a guiding framework for organizations to effectively navigate the delicate equilibrium between standardization, which entails preserving global consistency, and adaptation, which involves catering to local responsiveness, when managing expatriate assignments (Ellis et al., 2020) .

The theory known as Cognitive Adaptation Theory examines the cognitive processes that individuals undergo when adapting to a different cultural environment. Farcas and Gonçalves (2019) underscore the significance of psychological adaptation and coping strategies for expatriates in efficiently navigating cultural disparities. Each of the aforementioned theories provides valuable insights and direction for firms in effectively managing expatriate assignments. These theories specifically address the various problems associated with cross-cultural adaptation, job expectations, motivation, and performance management within international contexts. The incorporation of components derived from these theories facilitates the development of efficient expatriate management strategies and support systems within enterprises (Mello et al., 2020) .

2.2. Self-Initiative Expatriates in the Global Workforce

The subject of self-initiative expatriates in the global workforce holds considerable importance within the wider framework of the development of self-initiative expatriates. This section delves into the significance and influence of self-initiative expatriates within the global workforce. The study examines a range of aspects that contribute to the development and progression of individuals, including their personal motivations, possibilities for job growth, and ability to adapt to different cultures (Shao & Al Ariss, 2020) . This section presents a conceptual framework that allows a full explanation of the evolution of self-initiative expatriates by analyzing its essential features.

The research findings have practical consequences for both companies and individuals, providing guidance on how to effectively manage the obstacles and capitalize on the opportunities associated with self-initiative expatriates (Thorn et al., 2012) . Moreover, this section delineates areas of research that have not been adequately addressed and suggests potential avenues for future investigation by researchers in this particular sector. It emphasizes the necessity of delving deeper into the study of this dynamic workforce segment in order to gain a more comprehensive grasp of its intricacies. In general, the examination of self-initiative expatriates within the global workforce enhances our understanding of expatriate management theories and provides significant contributions to both practical applications and future scholarly investigations (Alshahrani, 2022) .

Self-initiative expatriates are an emerging group within the global labor force, characterized by their unique approach to seeking overseas employment opportunities. The global labor market is experiencing a transformation in professional mobility, as individuals actively seek cross-border opportunities and demonstrate agency in their pursuit of such chances (Alshammari, 2012) . The concept of autonomy and individual agency is a significant topic of discussion in academic circles. Self-initiative expats exhibit a notable level of independence, which sets them apart from conventional expatriates who are commonly designated by organizations. Individuals actively pursue international employment opportunities motivated by personal factors, professional ambitions, and a desire for exposure to varied cultural experiences (Andresen et al., 2020c) .

The phenomenon of global networking and connectivity refers to the interconnectedness and integration of individuals, organizations, and societies on a global scale through various technological platforms and communication networks. By capitalizing on the interconnectedness of the world, proactive individuals living abroad employ social networks, online platforms, and personal relationships to identify, seek, and successfully get international prospects. The aforementioned dependence on international connections exemplifies their capacity to adapt and utilize resources in the context of the globalized labor market (Ashta & Stokes, 2023) . A Multifaceted Array of Motivations and Aspirations: The motivations of self-initiative expatriates encompass factors that go beyond just job progression and monetary rewards. Individuals aspire to achieve personal growth, engage in cross-cultural immersion, enhance their skill set, and gain a more comprehensive understanding of global challenges. These aspirations represent a strong inclination towards holistic and enriching experiences (Bjerregaard, 2022) .

The concept of adaptability and resilience: Self-initiative expatriates demonstrate adaptation, cultural intelligence, and resilience, enabling them to thrive in varied situations. The demonstrated aptitude for navigating cultural nuances and surmounting obstacles highlights their proficiency in assimilating effectively into unfamiliar professional settings. The concept of career flexibility and boundaryless trajectories has gained attention in academic literature. Self-initiative expatriates are those who actively seek out opportunities beyond their home country, embracing a boundaryless career trajectory. This trajectory allows them to transcend geographical limits and pursue career fulfillment. This topic has been explored by Brewster, Makela, and Suutari (2019) in their research. The inherent flexibility of individuals enables them to engage in a wide range of industries, positions, and geographical places, thereby molding their professional trajectories in accordance with their own inclinations.

The impact on global talent and knowledge exchange: The inclusion of individuals with varied origins, skill sets, and experiences enhances the diversity and depth of the global talent pool. Cerdin (2013) Self-initiated expatriates play a significant role in facilitating the transfer of knowledge, promoting cultural variety, and facilitating the exchange of ideas, hence stimulating creativity and collaboration on an international scale. Challenges and opportunities for growth: Although international experiences may be appealing, self-initiative expatriates have several hurdles including cultural adaptation, language barriers, and social integration (Chwialkowska, 2020) . Nevertheless, these obstacles present prospects for individual and vocational development, augmenting flexibility and intercultural proficiencies.

The impact on organizational perspectives is evident as organizations are becoming more aware of the significance of self-initiative expatriates. Consequently, they are likely to modify their talent management strategies to effectively address this emerging trend (Danisman, 2017) . It is vital to comprehend the requirements and ambitions of these persons in order to cultivate a conducive environment. Self-initiative expatriates have a significant role in creating cross-cultural understanding, bridging socioeconomic divides, and increasing global connection (Despotovic et al., 2022) . The individuals’ experiences contribute to the facilitation of a more profound cultural exchange and understanding, encompassing both professional environments and the wider community (Fu et al., 2017) .

The existence of self-motivated individuals working abroad in the international labor market indicates a fundamental change in the way worldwide careers are pursued. This shift emphasizes the importance of personal drive, flexibility, and a comprehensive approach to professional growth in a world without borders. The author Froese (2012) asserts that the contributions made by individuals go beyond the confines of their respective organizations, exerting influence on a global scale in terms of work, culture, and interconnection.

2.3. Factors Influencing the Evolution of Self-Initiative Expatriates

This section examines the diverse elements that contribute to the development of self-initiative expatriates. This study explores the fundamental motivations that drive individuals to pursue self-initiative expatriation and examines the influence of these elements on their personal growth and adjustment. Furthermore, this study investigates extrinsic variables, like worldwide employment prospects, cultural disparities, and support from organizations, which influence the development of self-initiative expatriates. By comprehending these aspects, both businesses and individuals can enhance their readiness in addressing the distinctive obstacles and prospects that self-initiative expatriates contribute to the global workforce (Hussain & Zhang, 2023) . This section makes a valuable contribution to the overarching conceptual framework for comprehending the development of self-initiative expatriates, by conducting a thorough investigation of the various factors that influence them.

The phenomenon of self-initiative expatriates’ emergence is influenced by a range of elements that collectively motivate individuals to actively pursue overseas work experiences (Jiang et al., 2022) . Gaining an understanding of these significant aspects offers valuable insights into the underlying motives that propel this burgeoning trend. The evolution of self-initiative expatriates is influenced by several crucial variables. The advent of technology and the proliferation of connectivity have brought about significant transformations in the way individuals worldwide access information and avail themselves of global opportunities (Kubovcikova & van Bakel, 2022) . The advent of digital connectivity and the widespread availability of online platforms have significantly enhanced individuals’ ability to establish connections with worldwide networks and access job prospects. Consequently, individuals are now empowered to explore career options that extend beyond the confines of their own countries.

The need for personal and professional growth serves as a driving force behind people’ decision to pursue self-initiated expatriation, as it encompasses the desire for personal development, cultural immersion, and skill enhancement (Singh et al., 2022) . There is a significant attraction among individuals towards the notion of expanding their horizons, acquiring intercultural proficiency, and cultivating novel proficiencies within heterogeneous professional settings. The Evolution of Work Dynamics: A Shift in Paradigm The emergence of alternative work arrangements, such as remote work, gig economy, and flexible job options, has prompted individuals to explore non-conventional career trajectories.

The presence of flexibility within an organization creates a conducive climate that enables self-initiative expatriates to more easily engage in worldwide opportunities (Wechtler et al., 2023) . Career Advancement and Opportunities are crucial aspects that individuals consider while making decisions about their professional growth and development. The conviction that engaging in overseas experiences improves one’s job opportunities motivates individuals to actively pursue self-initiated expatriation. Numerous businesses place significant importance on the acquisition of global experience and cross-cultural competence, perceiving it as a distinct advantage within the context of an increasingly globalized employment landscape. The establishment of global networks and connections through various means such as social media, professional platforms, and personal ties is a significant factor in motivating individuals to engage in self-initiated expatriation (Zakaria & Yusuf, 2023) .

Networks play a vital role in facilitating international transitions by granting individuals access to career opportunities, information, and essential support. Individuals that possess a high level of interest regarding diverse cultures, languages, and lifestyles tend to exhibit a propensity for engaging in self-initiated expatriation (Tharenou, 2013) . The motivation to engage with unfamiliar settings and appreciate cultural variety serves as a driving force behind their choice to pursue overseas experiences. The presence of supportive ecosystems, mentorship programs, and resources specifically designed for self-initiative expatriates plays a crucial role in fostering and facilitating individuals’ pursuit of foreign chances (Cao et al., 2013) . The availability of information, assistance, and groups of persons with similar interests facilitates the process of transitioning. Economic factors refer to the various elements that influence the functioning and performance of an economy.

These factors encompass a wide range of aspects Economic factors, such as improved employment opportunities, increased income potential, or reduced cost of living in specific countries, serve as significant motivators for individuals contemplating self-initiated expatriation (Tharenou, 2013) . Shifting Perceptions Regarding Work-Life Balance: The changing perspectives on the equilibrium between work and personal life, as well as the acknowledgment of the value of varied experiences in shaping one’s individual and occupational identity, play a role in the attractiveness of self-initiated expatriation. Organizational Recognition and Support: Certain firms acknowledge and provide assistance for self-initiated expatriation, by implementing programs or creating chances for employees to autonomously pursue international experiences (Vance, 2005) . The endorsement from established organizations serves to validate and promote individuals’ pursuit of such initiatives. The aforementioned elements play a collective role in the development of self-initiative expatriates, indicating a change in individuals’ perceptions and pursuit of global career prospects beyond conventional organizational frameworks (Dejoux, 2022) .

This study proposes four dimensions as the elements influencing Self-Initiated Expatriates in a Global Landscape: “Diversity”, “Context”, “International Mobility”, and “Individual level” (Table 1).

3. Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework pertaining to the evolution of self-initiative expatriates encompasses an analysis of fundamental factors that contribute to their growth and progression. The factors encompassed in this study are Diversity, Context, International Mobility, Individual level (Cao, Hirschi, & Deller, 2013) . The development of self-initiated expatriates is shaped by the interaction of variety, context, international mobility, and individual-level traits. Their success in a worldwide society is underpinned by cultural awareness, adaptation, and a proactive approach. Comprehending the various aspects of self-initiated expatriation is crucial for individuals, organizations, and policymakers due to its influence on and by the global environment. The proposed conceptual framework of this study is presented in Figure 1.

3.1. Diversity Dimension

The diversity dimension encapsulates a multifaceted view of self-initiated expatriates, highlighting the rich tapestry of their backgrounds. Whether rooted in cultural diversity, varied educational levels, or diverse nationalities, the spectrum of experiences contributes to a holistic understanding of this dynamic group. Cultural sensitivity emerges as a key attribute, fostering an appreciation for different perspectives and enhancing intercultural competence. Cultural adaptation pertains to the phenomenon of individuals acclimating and adopting unfamiliar

Table 1. The operations definition of the research dimensions.

Figure 1. The proposed conceptual framework of self-initiated expatriate in a global landscape.

cultural contexts, hence influencing the capacity of expatriates to thrive in foreign settings (Froese & Peltokorpi, 2013) .

3.2. Context Dimensions

The context within which self-initiated expatriates operate is crucial in shaping their experiences. Economic globalization, geopolitical shifts, and technological advancements collectively mold the landscape. A backdrop of cross-cultural dynamics, multinational corporations, and international organizations sets the stage for self-initiated expatriates to navigate a complex global environment. As the global landscape evolves, so too must their strategies, reflecting a proactive approach to the challenges presented. Professional development investigates how being a self-initiative expatriate can lead to better career possibilities and advancement (Howe-Walsh & Schyns, 2010) . Gaining an understanding of these qualities can yield valuable insights into the ways in which organizations and individuals can effectively facilitate and enhance the support and development of self-initiative expatriates (Suutari & Brewster, 2000) . Subsequent investigations ought to prioritize the amelioration of knowledge gaps within the existing body of literature, as well as the pursuit of novel avenues for comprehending the evolutionary trajectory of self-initiative exiles. The author, Al Ariss (2010) , presents a conceptual framework that offers a systematic and organized way to comprehending the complex characteristics of self-initiative expatriates.

3.3. International Mobility Dimensions

The element of international mobility is a defining feature of self-initiated expatriation. Frequent travel abroad, global assignments, and participation in cross-cultural collaboration signify not only physical movement but also a commitment to engaging with diverse environments. Networking opportunities, cultural exchange, and exposure to global challenges contribute to the development of problem-solving abilities and a global mindset. These individuals actively pursue opportunities for overseas job experiences. The subject matter comprises a multitude of dimensions that shed light on the underlying motivations, decision-making processes, adaptive strategies, consequences, and influential elements that contribute to the ongoing development of this trend (Cerdin & Pargneux, 2010) .

3.4. Individual Level Dimension

At the individual level, self-initiated expatriates exhibit a range of characteristics that enable them to thrive in a global context. High autonomy, proactive decision-making, and adaptability are key components of their approach. The ability to leverage personal aspirations, career growth, and a proactive mindset enhances their resourcefulness in navigating the complexities of the global landscape. Moreover, traits such as resilience, open-mindedness, and continuous learning underscore their capacity to embrace challenges and capitalize on opportunities. The personal motives that drive individuals to become self-initiative expatriates can be attributed to various factors, including the pursuit of new challenges and opportunities for job progress (Froese, 2012) .

Motivations and drivers: The concept of individual autonomy is examined in relation to the inclination for self-governance and self-determination in influencing one’s professional trajectory, hence motivating individuals to autonomously pursue international prospects (Doherty, Dickmann, & Mills, 2011) . Personal development encompasses various factors that drive individuals to engage in self-initiated expatriation. These factors include the desire for personal growth, cultural immersion, skill enhancement, and the acquisition of a global viewpoint.

4. The Interrelationships among the Dimensions

The relationships among the dimensions described in this study are rooted in the fact that international mobility is closely associated with diversity, context, and individual-level attributes. It is essential for organizations and governments to acknowledge and utilize these relationships in order to establish conditions that encourage and enable self-motivated expatriates in their international pursuits. Table 2 illustrates the traits that this research has conceptualized to emerge from all dimensions.

4.1. Diversity and Its Relationship with Context, International Mobility, and Individual Level

Diversity, an essential element of self-initiated expatriation, is closely connected to the circumstances, global mobility, and personal attributes of expatriates. The global corporate environment is shaped by the intersection of individuals with distinct cultural origins, varying levels of education, and different nationalities, which in turn influences cross-cultural interactions. The interaction between economic globalization and geopolitical upheavals influences the experiences of

Table 2. The attribute of each dimension.

self-initiated expatriates, resulting in a distinct environment. Within the realm of frequent international migration, variety enhances the abundance of skilled individuals involved in global tasks and cross-cultural cooperation. This interactive connection improves networking possibilities and exposes individuals to a wide range of global concerns. The outcome is the development of a worldwide perspective, efficient problem-solving skills, and an increased awareness of cultural sensitivity.

Individually, diversity and its connections with context and international mobility promote the ability to adapt and take initiative. Expatriates utilize their diverse origins to manage the intricacies of the global environment, capitalizing on personal ambitions and professional advancement. The combination of diversity and individual-level features fosters a resilient and inventive expatriate community. Diversity plays a fundamental role in the relationship between self-initiated expatriation, affecting the environment, global mobility, and personal attributes. Organizations and politicians must fully embrace and comprehend this complex relationship in order to establish conducive conditions for self-initiated expatriates.

4.2. Context and Its Relationship with Diversity, International Mobility, and Individual Level

The setting in which self-initiated expatriates operate is a significant factor in determining the experiences they have and the characteristics they possess as individuals. Globalization of the economy, contacts between people of different cultures, and advancements in technology all contribute to the creation of an environment that is conducive to the growth of variety. The dynamic relationship between context and diversity contributes to an improved understanding of cultural sensitivity, adaptability, and the ability to efficiently solve problems. As individuals navigate the complex global landscape, engaging in frequent overseas travel and participating in worldwide assignments, the global setting fosters an environment that supports international mobility. This is because individuals do so in order to participate in worldwide assignments. Because of the association between context and worldwide mobility, opportunities for networking, exposure to global concerns, and the development of a global perspective are all helped along by this correlation. By putting their knowledge to use in a variety of different environments around the world, expatriates are able to strengthen their skills in effective problem-solving.

On a personal level, characteristics such as resiliency and a proactive mindset are influenced by elements of the global environment that are always shifting. People who move abroad exhibit adaptability and an unrelenting dedication to their own personal and professional development. This is because they are motivated by the opportunities and challenges presented by the global environment. The relationship between self-initiated expatriation and circumstances is one that is in a state of perpetual alteration and mutually influences one another. In order for businesses and politicians to develop supportive institutions that enable expatriates to thrive in a global world that is always changing, it is essential for them to gain an understanding of this correlation.

4.3. International Mobility and Its Relationship with Diversity, Context, and Individual Level

International mobility is a crucial element of self-initiated expatriation, and its connection to diversity, context, and individual-level attributes greatly influences the development of the expatriate experience. The mix of varied origins, including cultural diversity, a range of educational levels, and many nationalities, creates a valuable pool of highly skilled individuals who are frequently engaged in worldwide mobility. The interplay between worldwide mobility and unique contexts is evident in the global commercial climate, the intricacies of cross-cultural contacts, and the advancements in technology. By establishing this synergy, a conducive environment is formed where expatriates may navigate a complex global landscape, engage in international tasks, and communicate across cultural barriers. Engaging in this activity leads to an elevated global mindset, proficient problem-solving skills, and a broadened understanding of cultural sensitivity.

On an individual level, frequent international migration cultivates attributes such as a strong sense of independence, proactive decision-making skills, and adaptability. Expatriates utilize their experiences in several contexts to establish a proactive attitude. They achieve this by utilizing their own ambitions and professional advancement in response to continuous learning and changing worldwide obstacles.

5. Discussion

The process of decision-making is a cognitive process that involves identifying and evaluating alternatives in order to make a choice or reach a conclusion. This study examines the various sources of information that individuals rely on while making the decision to become self-initiative expatriates. These sources include online resources, personal connections, and professional networks (Chen, 2012) . Risk assessment is a comprehensive examination of how individuals assess and effectively handle the potential hazards that are associated with independent relocation. This includes an analysis of the problems related to culture, the stability of job, and the adjustments required in one’s lifestyle. The article by Al Ariss (2010) examines the process of goal setting among individuals in the context of their expatriate experience, both in personal and professional domains. It delves into the tactics employed by these individuals to effectively attain their goals. The topic of cultural adjustment in the context of adaptation and integration pertains to the examination of the difficulties encountered and the approaches employed when acclimating to unfamiliar cultural settings, linguistic contexts, and professional atmospheres.

The present study investigates the manner in which self-initiative expatriates effectively manage several work-related obstacles, such as establishing professional connections, comprehending indigenous work methodologies, and attaining career advancement ( Cao, Hirschi, & Deller, 2012 ) Psychological and social well-being encompasses the examination of the effects of expatriation on individuals’ mental health, social relationships, and general state of well-being. The results and consequences: The study conducted by Chen (2012) examines the effects of self-initiated expatriation on an individual’s career trajectory, specifically focusing on professional growth, skill acquisition, and future job chances. This study examines the organizational perspectives about the perception and utilization of self-initiative expatriates’ experiences. It delves into topics such as talent management techniques and knowledge transfer within organizations. The study conducted by Froese (2012) examines the societal and cultural contributions of self-initiative expats, focusing on their impact on global interconnectedness, cross-cultural understanding, and knowledge exchange.

Factors Affecting Success: The topic of individual traits pertains to the examination of personal characteristics, namely adaptability, openness, resilience, and cultural intelligence, which are known to have a significant role in facilitating effective self-initiated expatriation (Selmer & Lauring, 2010) .

The study titled “Key Dimensions of the Evolution of Self-Initiative Expatriates” explores the fundamental factors that influence the growth and progression of self-initiative expatriates. This section examines three key factors that play a significant role in their evolution: motivation, mentality, and adaptability. Motivation is a concept that explores the underlying factors that prompt individuals to become self-initiative expatriates. These factors may include the pursuit of personal development, the aspiration for job progression, or the quest for novel experiences (Andresen & Muskat, 2021) . The concept of mindset emphasizes the significance of possessing a receptive and proactive mentality when maneuvering through unknown contexts and surmounting obstacles (Suutari, 2018) .

Finally, the concept of adaptation pertains to the assessment of how self-motivated expatriates effectively acclimate and conform to unfamiliar cultural environments, professional methodologies, and societal conventions (Alshahrani, 2022) . A comprehensive grasp of these fundamental elements is vital for both organizations and individuals in order to proficiently facilitate and traverse the dynamic terrain of self-initiative expatriates (Ashta & Stokes, 2023) . The phenomenon of self-initiative expatriates’ evolution encompasses multiple facets, underscoring the complex nature of persons who deliberately seek out international work experiences (Bjerregaard, 2022) . The key dimensions comprise a variety of variables that jointly contribute to the shaping and defining of this dynamic trend. The concept of autonomous career management pertains to self-initiative expatriates who actively assume control over their career paths by individually pursuing foreign possibilities (Cerdin, 2013) .

This dimension emphasizes the individuals’ independence in navigating and molding their professional trajectories beyond conventional organizational tasks (Danisman, 2017) . Motivational Factors and Future Aspirations: It is vital to comprehend the underlying motives that propel self-initiative expats. The driving forces behind individuals’ engagement in international work initiatives include personal development, cultural integration, professional progress, and a desire for varied experiences (Despotovic et al., 2022) . The phenomenon of global networking and connectivity is observed as self-initiative expatriates leverage various platforms such as social media, professional networks, and personal connections to identify and secure international opportunities. This utilization of connectivity highlights their ability to adapt in a world that is increasingly interconnected on a global scale (Hussain & Zhang, 2023) . The examination of decision-making processes in the context of self-initiated expatriation entails the assessment of many mechanisms involved, such as risk evaluation, information acquisition, goal establishment, and strategic planning, all aimed at realizing foreign career ambitions (Jiang et al., 2022) .

The factor of cultural adaptation and integration pertains to the complexities and approaches associated with acclimating to unfamiliar cultures, languages, and work settings (Kubovcikova & van Bakel, 2022) . The ability to effectively integrate into varied environments is crucial for expatriates who are proactive in taking initiative. The acquisition of professional growth and skill development is facilitated by international experiences, which contribute to the expansion of one’s skill set and the development of a global perspective (Despotovic et al., 2022) . This component highlights the importance of self-initiated expatriation in enhancing professional skills and abilities. The examination of psychological and social well-being is a crucial aspect in understanding the effects of the expatriation process on mental health, social relationships, and general well-being (Zakaria & Yusuf, 2023) . By considering these various characteristics, a comprehensive approach may be taken towards understanding the expatriate experience.

Career Progression and Contributions: It is imperative to undertake an analysis of the effects of self-initiative expatriation on career advancement, development of skills, and prospects for future possibilities. Furthermore, the examination of the impacts made by these individuals on other entities such as companies, societies, and worldwide networks constitutes a substantial aspect (Chen et al., 2023) . The assessment of organizational perceptions and support for self-initiative expatriates, as well as the examination of the wider societal ramifications of this phenomenon, represents a significant aspect of research (Singh et al., 2022) . This concept incorporates various organizational initiatives, policies, and societal transformations that are associated with global work experiences. The present study aims to investigate the various factors that influence success in self-initiated expatriation. Specifically, it will explore individual qualities, external support systems, and permissive surroundings as crucial dimensions contributing to successful outcomes (Alshahrani, 2022) . Gaining an understanding of these elements is crucial in cultivating and facilitating prosperous overseas interactions. The following characteristics encompass the complex aspects and factors that contribute to the development of self-initiative expatriates, providing a complete comprehension of this transformative change in global careers

6. Implications and Future Research

Implications and Future Directions The study of self-initiative expatriates’ evolution can be comprehended via a practical lens, offering potential benefits to both companies and individuals. The research findings presented in this study can be utilized by organizations to formulate and implement efficient methods aimed at effectively managing self-initiative expatriates. By doing so, organizations can enhance the performance and overall success of these individuals in their overseas assignments (Howe-Walsh & Schyns, 2010) . This phenomenon can also result in improved talent management strategies, as firms have the ability to recognize and cultivate proactive expatriates who possess the requisite skills and characteristics for accomplishing successful foreign assignments (Andresen & Biemann, 2012) . Moreover, individuals have the opportunity to use these consequences in order to augment their career advancement and personal development. This can be achieved by comprehending the fundamental dimensions and aspects that exert effect on the progression of self-initiative expatriates (Cao et al., 2013) . Nevertheless, it is imperative to acknowledge the existence of research gaps that necessitate attention and resolution in forthcoming investigations.

Additional investigation is required to examine the influence of cultural intelligence and cross-cultural competences on the development of self-initiative expatriates (Cerdin & Selmer, 2014) . Furthermore, there is a need for further investigation on the impact of social networks and support systems in enabling the development of self-initiative expatriates. Moreover, it is imperative to conduct further research on the impact of individual traits, such as motivation, self-efficacy, and resilience, on the development of self-initiative expats (Doherty, 2013) . In general, this conceptual framework establishes a fundamental basis for future research endeavors aimed at augmenting our comprehension of the progression of self-initiative expatriates, as well as formulating pragmatic implications for both organizations and individuals (Froese, 2012) . The increasing occurrence of self-initiative expatriates in the global labor market carries significant ramifications and opens us opportunities for further investigation that can enhance our comprehension of this developing phenomenon.

The comprehension of the experiences and motives of self-initiative expatriates holds significant importance for organizations in terms of organizational adaptation and talent management (Froese & Peltokorpi, 2013) . The study can investigate the ways in which organizations modify their talent management methods to effectively incorporate and capitalize on this phenomenon, hence improving their recruiting, retention, and support mechanisms (Howe-Walsh & Schyns, 2010) . The topic of discussion pertains to the development and implementation of policies, as well as the support systems that facilitate their execution. Subsequent investigations may direct their attention towards formulating policy suggestions aimed at governments, organizations, and educational institutions, with the objective of establishing conducive environments for self-initiative expatriates (Jokinen et al., 2008) . This encompasses the formulation of policies, design of educational programs, and establishment of support systems that are specifically customized to cater to the unique requirements of the individuals in question.

The significance of self-initiative expatriates in promoting cross-cultural understanding, knowledge sharing, and global connection is a crucial aspect to be explored in the context of cultural interchange and global connectivity. The study can explore the cultural exchange contributions and the wider societal influence resulting from their experiences (Lo et al., 2012) . Additional investigation into the psychological, social, and emotional dimensions of self-initiated expatriation can yield valuable knowledge regarding the strategies employed for adaptation, coping mechanisms utilized, and support required by expatriates to flourish within culturally diverse environments (Myers & Pringle, 2005) . The longitudinal studies aim to examine the career trajectories of self-initiative expatriates and evaluate the enduring effects of international experiences on the development of skills, progression in careers, and contributions made to diverse industries (Peltokorpi & Froese, 2009) .

The impact on organizational dynamics can be explored through research that examines the influence of self-initiative expatriates on various aspects such as organizational culture, diversity, innovation, and knowledge transfer within multinational companies. This investigation can provide insights into the role of self-initiative expatriates in shaping organizational dynamics (Suutari & Brewster, 2000) . The examination of various factors that influence the outcomes of self-initiative expatriation experiences can yield significant insights for individuals and organizations in effectively managing difficulties and optimizing potential (Jiang et al., 2022) . The impact of technological advancements and remote work on self-initiative expatriates can be further investigated in future research, considering the growing prevalence of virtual work arrangements (Wechtler et al., 2023) .

The examination of ethical dimensions pertaining to self-initiative expatriation encompasses considerations such as the effects on local communities, the ethical obligations of individuals, and the role of expatriates in making positive contributions to local societies (Singh et al., 2022) . The examination of the impact of self-initiative expatriates on diversity, inclusion, and global leadership models can provide significant insights into their effect within global work environments (Zakaria & Yusuf, 2023) . Undertaking extensive and long-term research in these domains can yield a more profound comprehension of self-initiated expatriates, their influence on diverse realms, and offer insights to develop approaches that address the requirements of individuals and organizations in an ever-changing global context.

6.1. Practical Implications for Organizations and Individuals

This section examines the ramifications of the notion of self-initiative expatriates for both organizations and individuals. This study focuses on the analysis of how businesses can modify their policies and processes in order to proficiently handle self-initiative expatriates and optimize their influence. Additionally, it underscores the significance of offering assistance and access to resources to these persons in order to guarantee their achievement in overseas assignments. This section examines the advantages and difficulties associated with being a self-initiative expatriate, focusing on the experiences of individuals. Additionally, it provides solutions for effectively managing and negotiating these issues. In general, this section offers pragmatic insights and suggestions for both companies and individuals to improve their comprehension and utilization of self-initiative expatriates within the global workforce.

The emergence of self-initiative expatriates has significant practical ramifications for both companies and individuals involved in this dynamic phenomenon (Howe-Walsh & Schyns, 2010) . Practical Implications for Organizations: Organizations have the opportunity to enhance their talent pool by using the broad skill sets, global perspectives, and cross-cultural skills of self-initiative expatriates (Jokinen et al., 2008) . Customizing recruitment tactics to effectively attract and retain these individuals has the potential to enhance organizational diversity and foster innovation. The implementation of talent management strategies necessitates the adjustment of existing systems to effectively cater to self-initiative expatriates.

This entails acknowledging their underlying motives, offering avenues for personal growth and advancement, and establishing adaptable career trajectories (Andresen et al., 2012) . According to Andresen and Muskat (2021) , the provision of support for employees’ international experiences has the potential to positively impact employee happiness, loyalty, and long-term commitment to the firm. The promotion of engagement between self-initiative expatriates and local employees can serve as a catalyst for information sharing, the interchange of ideas, and cultural enrichment within organizational settings (Brewster, et al., 2021) . Utilizing their extensive international networks can facilitate access to novel markets, partnerships, and prospects for business expansion.

The cultivation of an inclusive organizational culture that places importance on varied viewpoints, experiences, and backgrounds is crucial in order to fully leverage the capabilities of self-initiative expatriates (Ellis et al., 2020) . The act of acknowledging and valuing the contributions made by individuals can have a positive impact on the overall culture of an organization, fostering inclusivity and creating a more diverse and welcoming work environment. Practical Implications for Individuals: The topic of personal and professional development is explored in the context of self-initiative expatriates, who have the opportunity to leverage international experiences for the purpose of skill enhancement, cultural fluency, and the expansion of their global perspective. These endeavors can contribute significantly to their personal growth and career progression (Farcas et al., 2019) . Developing a varied range of skills and acquiring cross-cultural experiences can enhance one’s marketability and facilitate access to novel job prospects.

The ability to establish and maintain connections with individuals from different countries and cultures can be a valuable asset for individuals. By drawing on their international experiences, individuals can broaden their networks, foster relationships that transcend geographical boundaries, and access various worldwide opportunities (Mello et al., 2020) . The act of preserving and fostering these connections can yield continuous assistance and opportunities to engage with a wide range of professional networks. The cultivation of adaptation, resilience, and intercultural competences is crucial for individuals to effectively navigate varied situations and enhance their capacity to succeed in dynamic and multicultural settings (Shao & Al Ariss, 2020) . The process of surmounting obstacles encountered in the context of self-initiated expatriation fosters the development of resilience and augments one’s aptitude for problem-solving. The professional trajectory and development of leadership skills:

The effective management of self-initiated expatriation experiences has the potential to establish individuals as adaptive, resourceful, and globally-oriented professionals, hence augmenting their opportunities for assuming leadership positions (Alshahrani, 2022) . The adoption of a wide range of experiences can offer a distinct viewpoint and set of abilities that are highly esteemed in international leadership roles (Andresen et al., 2020c) . In general, Organizations must modify their people management techniques and foster an inclusive culture in order to effectively accommodate self-initiative expatriates. Individually, the pursuit of independent international experiences presents prospects for personal and professional development, cultivating adaptability and expanding career prospects within an ever more interconnected global context.

6.2. Research Gaps and Future Directions

Within the segment pertaining to “Research Gaps and Future Directions,” there exists a potential avenue for additional investigation into the subject matter of the evolutionary aspects surrounding self-initiative expatriates. In order to expand upon the current body of scholarly work, prospective studies may direct their attention towards examining the significance of cultural adaptation in the developmental trajectory of self-initiative expatriates. Moreover, a thorough analysis of the influence of technical progress and globalization on self-initiative expatriates would enhance our holistic comprehension of this phenomenon.

Moreover, an examination of the correlation between self-initiative expatriates and host country nationals will provide insights into the intricacies and potential obstacles of intercultural engagements. Finally, conducting an investigation into the motives and decision-making mechanisms of persons who choose to become self-initiative expatriates would yield significant insights into the various aspects that influence this particular career path. In general, the resolution of these study deficiencies would make a significant contribution to the progression of understanding regarding the development of self-initiative expatriates, while also providing practical consequences for both organizations and individuals. The field of self-initiative expatriates is undergoing ongoing research, which has identified various gaps and potential areas for future investigation. These routes of discovery have the potential to enhance our comprehension of this phenomenon (Ashta & Stokes, 2023) .

One area that requires further investigation is the identification of research gaps. The scope of the study is restricted or confined. Longitudinal studies are a type of research design that involves collecting data from the same subjects over an extended period of time. There is a scarcity of long-term research that examine the career trajectories, experiences, and results of self-initiative expatriates. Bjerregaard (2022) suggests that longitudinal research has the potential to provide valuable insights into several aspects of individuals’ career development, including the problems they encounter over time and the enduring effects of overseas experiences. The Importance of Ensuring Inclusive Sample Representation in Research Studies The scholarly investigation frequently centers on Western expatriates or certain industries, resulting in a dearth of diversity within the examined cohorts. Examining the experiences of individuals hailing from various cultural backgrounds and industries can provide a more comprehensive perspective (Brewster et al., 2019) .

The examination of gender and family dynamics is crucial for comprehending the involvement of gender and familial responsibilities in self-initiated expatriation, necessitating more investigation. The investigation could explore the impact of gender dynamics and family considerations on decision-making processes and experiences in international settings (Chwialkowska, 2020) . The phenomenon of cultural adaptation and the corresponding coping mechanisms. Additional research is required to delve more into the particular tactics, coping mechanisms, and support structures employed by self-initiative expatriates in order to effectively manage the hurdles associated with cultural adaptation (Danisman, 2017) . There are gaps in current research concerning the organizational perspectives, support, and utilization of self-initiative expatriates. The comprehension of organizational strategies and policies pertaining to this specific cohort has the potential to augment support systems (Despotovic et al., 2022) . Future Directions: Comparative Studies in Academic Research: Comparative analyses examining self-initiative expats and typically assigned expatriates may provide useful insights into the distinctions in motives, experiences, and outcomes, so contributing to a deeper understanding of the evolving dynamics of global careers.

The investigation of the influence of remote work, virtual teams, and technological advancements on the choices and experiences of self-initiative expatriates in a post-pandemic world presents a promising avenue for future scholarly inquiry (Jiang et al., 2022) . The examination of ethical aspects related to self-initiative expatriation, such as the obligations of expatriates towards local communities and surroundings, offers valuable perspectives on the promotion of conscientious global citizenship. The identification of success factors that contribute to favorable outcomes in self-initiated expatriation can provide valuable insights for individuals and organizations, facilitating the management of challenges and the optimization of opportunities (Kubovcikova & van Bakel, 2022) .

The investigation of the role of self-initiative expatriates on encouraging innovation, varied viewpoints in decision-making, and building global leadership models might yield insights into their broader impact on innovation and global leadership. The examination of government policies, educational institutions, and support networks in facilitating self-initiated expatriation can provide valuable insights into the development of favorable conditions for individuals aspiring to become expatriates (Wechtler et al., 2023) . By addressing the aforementioned study gaps and delving into potential future avenues, scholars can enhance their comprehension of self-initiative expatriates, their experiences, and the resulting ramifications for individuals, organizations, and societies within an increasingly globalized world.

6.3. Limitations and Further Research

Despite the growing acknowledgment of self-initiative expatriates, several limitations persist in the present comprehension of this subject matter necessitates additional investigation in order to fully comprehend this dynamic phenomenon. The issue of sample representativeness is frequently observed in current research, since it tends to concentrate on particular industries, geographies, or cultural backgrounds, so restricting the diversity of samples. A more inclusive and diverse representation of persons from a range of backgrounds would contribute to a more comprehensive and holistic knowledge. Short-term studies examining self-initiative expatriates sometimes lack longitudinal perspectives, thereby failing to capture the enduring impacts and career paths of these individuals. Understudied Variables.

There exists a necessity to further investigate understudied variables, including gender dynamics, familial considerations, dual-career challenges, and ethical ramifications associated with self-initiated expatriation. The current body of research is lacking in its examination of how organizations perceive, support, and leverage the potential of self-initiative expatriates from an organizational perspective. It is vital to comprehend the organizational plans and policies pertaining to this specific cohort. Potential Areas for Future Investigation: Longitudinal studies are a powerful research approach that involves tracking the career routes, problems encountered, and enduring repercussions experienced by self-initiative expatriates. By examining their trajectories and experiences over an extended period, these studies can provide valuable insights. Comparative analyses can offer valuable insights into the distinctions between self-initiative expatriates and typically assigned expatriates, shedding light on their respective motives, experiences, and outcomes. This approach can contribute to a more comprehensive and nuanced comprehension of the subject matter.

The incorporation of underrepresented groups is crucial in research. By including individuals from varied ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic backgrounds, a more comprehensive understanding of self-initiative expatriates can be achieved, while also addressing the limits associated with representativeness. The examination of ethical aspects related to self-initiated expatriation, such as the obligations of expatriates towards local communities and environments, has the potential to provide valuable insights into the promotion of responsible global citizenship. A valuable avenue of research would involve examining the ways in which organizations may adequately facilitate self-initiative expatriates and modify their people management methods to suit this emerging trend. Such research would offer practical insights for organizations seeking to effectively assist and engage with self-initiative expats. The examination of the effects of distant labor, virtual teams, and technological improvements on the decision-making processes and overall experiences of self-initiative expatriates in a post-pandemic society presents a compelling avenue for prospective scholarly investigation. By acknowledging these constraints and delving into additional avenues of inquiry, scholars can enhance their comprehension of self-initiative expatriates, their encounters, and the ramifications they have on individuals, organizations, and societies within an ever more interconnected global context.

7. Conclusion

Development of self-initiative expats. Through an analysis of the theoretical underpinnings and the various forces that shape its development, we have presented a full comprehension of this burgeoning phenomenon within the international labor force. The research findings have substantial consequences for both businesses and individuals, providing valuable insights for effectively managing and nurturing self-initiative expatriates. Additionally, our study has successfully identified areas of inquiry that have not yet been addressed, and proposes potential avenues for future investigation in relation to this subject matter. The examination of self-initiative expatriates reveals areas of research that have not been adequately addressed and suggests potential avenues for further investigation. These include the necessity for longitudinal studies to track the experiences of self-initiative expats over an extended period of time, comparative analyses to understand how their experiences differ across various contexts, and inquiries into the ethical, gender, and organizational aspects of their endeavors. Self-initiative expatriates serve as prime examples of individuals who actively take control of their professional trajectories, utilizing the interconnectedness of the global landscape and their own personal agency to pursue international prospects that extend beyond conventional organizational frameworks. The objectives of those involved in this endeavor span a diverse range of factors, including personal development, cultural integration, skill improvement, and global awareness. This demonstrates a comprehensive approach to advancing one’s profession and enriching one’s life. The continuously changing character of global labor dynamics implies a perpetual transformation within this domain. Self-initiative expatriation provides individuals with opportunities for both personal and professional advancement, as well as the chance to broaden their networks and enhance their skill sets. Organizations derive advantages by adopting and endorsing this prevailing tendency, capitalizing on the skills and expertise of these individuals to cultivate innovation and enhance global competitiveness. In general, this paradigm offers a significant instrument for comprehending and tackling the issues and prospects posed by self-initiative expatriates in the contemporary international society. The rise and development of self-initiative expatriates represents a significant transformation in the realm of global careers, marked by the presence of personal initiative, independence, and active pursuit of international professional opportunities. In the culmination of our investigation of this phenomenon, a number of essential aspects emerge as prominent. In summary, the emergence of self-initiative expatriates represents a fundamental change in the manner in which individuals negotiate international professional trajectories, embracing autonomy, diversity, and adaptation as key indicators of achievement. The comprehension, endorsement, and investigation of this phenomenon will persist in influencing the trajectory of international labor forces, underscoring the significance of personal autonomy and the interdependence inside our interconnected global society.


I am grateful to the College of Business and Grambling State University Core Research Unit for providing financial sequencing services. I extended my gratitude to my esteemed Dean Dr. Derrick Warren and Ex-Dean Dr. Donald White and Dr. Haile Semere for their invaluable advice, continuous support, patience and immense knowledge and plentiful experience have encouraged me in all the time of my academic research and daily life. Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to my parents and Friends. Without their tremendous understanding and encouragement in the past few years, it would have been impossible for me to complete my education.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


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