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Consumption Pattern of Energy Drinks by University of Ibadan Students and Associated Health Risks Factors

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DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.522234    3,731 Downloads   4,568 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Energy drinks are non alcoholic, carbonated beverages claimed to give extra burst of energy for daily obligation. They contain some form of legal stimulants and vitamins which are meant to give consumers short term boost in energy and increase mental alertness. Energy drinks enjoy patronage especially among higher institution students in Nigeria, but little is known about the consumption pattern and possible health risks to consumers. This study was carried out to determine the contribution of four commonly consumed energy drinks to energy intake of University of Ibadan students and the associated health risk factors. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of energy drinks consumption was carried out using a four-stage systematic random sampling technique to select 307 students from six out of nine halls of residence for Undergraduates and the two Postgraduate halls. A validated semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, consumption pattern and frequency, and factors influencing consumption of energy drinks. Samples of the four most commonly consumed energy drinks by the students (Power Horse, Emerge, Red Bull and Matador brands) were purchased from different stores within and around the University of Ibadan campus. Composite samples of all the four energy drinks (with at least six months expiration date) were analysed for physico- chemical characteristics, gross energy, minerals and B-vitamins content in triplicate using standard methods of AOAC. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and one way ANOVA, and level of significance set at p < 0.05. Respondents mean age was 23.1 ± 4.6 years, 79.2% were undergraduates and 51.1% were female. Majority (74.6%) of respondents had ever taken energy drinks prior to the study, 42.4% reported consuming at least one can in a week, and 52.1% consumed 1 can at a sitting. Reasons for consumption included to increase: energy (48.2%), mental alertness (18.6%) and athletic performance (9.5%). Reported side effects were: insomnia (14.0%), frequent urination (12.2%), dehydration (11.3%), anxiety (9.1%), heart palpitation (3.5%). Frequency of consumption was significantly associated with gender (p < 0.05). Titratable acidity, total solids and pH of energy drinks ranged between 7.57 ± 0.60 - 8.28 ± 0.08, 7.57 ± 0.60 - 11.42 ± 0.31, and 3.36 ± 0.08 - 3.81 ± 0.12 respectively. Glucose, sucrose, and gross energy content ranged between 7.77 ± 0.01 - 7.89 ± 0.01 g, 22.61 ± 0.07 - 23.74 ± 0.09 g, and 43.59 ± 0.38 - 48.89 ± 0.28 kcal/100g respectively. Few respondents knew about the ingredients and potential health risks associated with energy drink consumption. All the four drinks had acidic pH, hence nutrition education on reduction of energy drink consumption is needed among these students.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Adepoju, O. and Ojo, V. (2014) Consumption Pattern of Energy Drinks by University of Ibadan Students and Associated Health Risks Factors. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 2209-2216. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.522234.

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