Iranian EFL Learners’ Achievement Goals in Relation with Their Metacognitive Reading Strategy Use

DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2011.12006   PDF   HTML     5,950 Downloads   12,304 Views   Citations


The present study aimed at finding the relationship between the subscales of achievement goals and the frequency of metacognitive reading strategies (MRS) Iranian EFL learners use, and tried to explore any significant differences between males and females regarding achievement goals and metacognitive reading strategy use. 103 freshman and sophomore students majoring in English Literature and English Translation in Shahid Bahonar and Azad universities of Kerman took part in this study. In order to obtain the required data, two questionnaires were utilized: Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) developed by Elliot and McGregor (2001) to measure the participants’ achievement goal orientations, and Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI) developed by Mokhtari and Reichard (2002) to measure the participants’ frequency of metacognitive reading strategy use. The findings of this study revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between mastery-approach goal orientation and MRS use. Regarding the other three subscales of achievement goals (performance-approach, performance-avoidance, and mastery-avoidance) in relation with MRS use, all the correlations were significantly negative. Moreover, a significant difference was found between males and females regarding their achievement goals. Females were found to have higher scores of achievement goals. Regarding MRS use and gender, no significant difference was found between males and females.

Share and Cite:

Ghavam, M. , Rastegar, M. & Razmi, M. (2011). Iranian EFL Learners’ Achievement Goals in Relation with Their Metacognitive Reading Strategy Use. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 1, 39-44. doi: 10.4236/ojml.2011.12006.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Afflerbach, P., Pearson, P. D., & Paris, S. G. (2008). Clarifying differences between reading skills and reading strategies. The Reading Teacher, 61, 364-373. doi:10.1598/RT.61.5.1
[2] Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261-271. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.261
[3] Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988). Achievement goals in the classroom: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 260-267. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.80.3.260
[4] Archer, S. L. (1994). Interventions for adolescent identity development. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
[5] Bacon, S. M. (1992). Phases of listening to authentic input in Spanish: A descriptive study. Foreign Language Annals, 25, 317-333. doi:10.1111/j.1944-9720.1992.tb00552.x
[6] Baker, L. (2005). Developmental differences in Metacognition: Implications for metacognitively oriented reading instruction. In S. E. Israel, K. L. Bauserman, C. C. Block and K. Kinnucan-Welsch (Eds.), Metacognition in Literacy Learning: Theory, Assessment, Instruction and Professional Development (pp. 61-79). Abingdon: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[7] Baker, L., & Brown, A. L. (1984). Metacognitive skills and reading. In P. D. Pearson, R. Barr, M. L. Kamil and P. Mosenthal (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research (pp. 353-394). New York: Longman.
[8] Bipp, T., Steinmayr, R., & Spinath, B. (2008). Personality and achievement motivation: Relationship among big five domain and facet scales, achievement goals and intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1454-1464. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.01.001
[9] Butler, R. (1993). Effects of task-and ego-achievement goals on information seeking during task engagement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 18-31. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.65.1.18
[10] Chamot, A., & O’Malley, M. (1987). The cognitive academic language learning approach: A bridge to the mainstream. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 227-249. doi:10.2307/3586733
[11] Chan, K. W., Lau, P. Y., Leung, M. T., & Moore, P. J. (2005). Students’ goal orientations, study strategies and achievement: A closer look in Hong Kong Chinese cultural context. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 14, 1-26.
[12] Cooper, S. S. (2004). Metacognition in the adult learner. URL (last checked 23 March 2010)
[13] Deyreh, E., & Banijamali, S. H. (2009). The study of contribution of motivational factors on cognitive and metacognitive strategies used in learning process. Psychological Studies, 5, 47-62.
[14] Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040-1048. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040
[15] Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Harold, R. D., & Blumenfeld, P. (1993). Age and gender differences in children’s self- and task perceptions during elementary school. Child Development, 64, 830-847. doi:10.2307/1131221
[16] Ehrman, M. E., & Oxford, R. L. (1989). Effects of sex differences, career choice, and psychological type on adult language learning strategies. Modern Language Journal, 73, 1-13. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4781.1989.tb05302.x
[17] Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 169-189. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3403_3
[18] Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 218-232. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.72.1.218
[19] Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501-519. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.80.3.501
[20] Elliot, A. J., McGregor, H. A., & Gable, S. L. (1999). Achievement goals, study strategies, and exam performance: A mediational analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 549-563. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.91.3.549
[21] Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906-911. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906
[22] Flavell, J. H. (1987). Speculation about the nature and development of metacognition. In: F. E. Wernert and R. H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, Motivation and Understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[23] Ford, J. K., Smith, E. M., Weissbein, D. A., Gully, S. M., & Salas, E. (1998). Relationships of goal orientation, meta-cognitive activity, and practice strategies with learning outcomes and transfer. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 218-233. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.83.2.218
[24] Garner, R. (1987). Metacognition and reading comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
[25] Grabe, W. (1991). Current developments in second language reading research. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 375-406. doi:10.2307/3586977
[26] Gutman, L. M. (2006). How student and parent goal orientation and classroom goal structures influence the math achievement of African Americans during high school transition? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31, 44-63. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2005.01.004
[27] Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Carter, S. M., Lehto, A. T., & Elliot, A. J. (1997). Predictors and consequences of achievement goals in the college classroom: Maintaining interest and making the grade. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1284-1295. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.73.6.1284
[28] Kenny-Benson, G. A., Pomerantz, E. M., Ryan, A. M., & Patrick, I-I. (2006). Sex differences in math performance: The role of children's approach to schoolwork. Developmental Psychology, 42, 1 1-26.
[29] Kharazi, S. A. N., Ezhehei, J., Ghazi Tabatabaei, M., & Kareshki, H. (2008). An investigation of the relationships between achievement goals, self-efficacy and metacognitive strategies: Testing a causal model. Journal of Psychology and Education, 38, 69-87.
[30] Lenmann, R. L. (2002). Enhancing the valuing of commitment to effortful achievement: An achievement goal approach. Proceeding of the AERA Annual Meeting, University of Minnesota, 1-19.
[31] Meece, J. L., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Hoyle, R. H. (1988). Students’ goal orientations and cognitive engagement in classroom activities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 514-523. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.80.4.514
[32] Mohsenpour, M., Hejazi, E., & Kiamanesh, A. R. (2008). The roal of self-efficacy, achievement goals, learning strategies and persistence in math achievement of 11th grade high school students in Tehran. Journal of Educational Innovations, 24, 153-172.
[33] Mokhtari, K., Reichard, C. (2002). Assessing students’ metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 249-259. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.94.2.249
[34] Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328-346. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.91.3.328
[35] Nolen, S. B., & Haladyna, T. M. (1990). Motivation and studying in high school science. Journal of Research in Science and Teaching, 27, 115-126. doi:10.1002/tea.3660270204
[36] O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
[37] Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House.
[38] Oxford, R. L. (1989). Use of language learning strategies: A synthesis of studies with implications for strategy training. System, 17, 235-247. doi:10.1016/0346-251X(89)90036-5
[39] Pereira-Laird, J. A., & Deane, F. P. (1997). Development and validation of a self-report measure of reading strategy use. Reading Psychology: An International Journal, 18, 185-235.
[40] Pieper, S. (2003). Refining and extending the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework: Another look at work-avoidance. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64, 4436.
[41] Pintrich, P. R., & DeGroot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.33
[42] Pintrich, P. R., & Garcia, T. (1991). Student goal orientation and self-regulation in the college classroom. In M. L. Maehr and P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement (pp. 371-402). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
[43] Pintrich, P. R., & Schunk, D. H. (2000). Motivation in education. Theory, research, and applications (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[44] Pintrich, P. R., & Schunk, D. H. (1996). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[45] Pressley, M., & Afflerbach, P. (1995). Verbal protocols of reading: The nature of constructively responsive reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[46] Samuels, S. J., Ediger, K.-A. M., Willcutt, J. R., & Palumbo, T. (2005). Role of automaticity in metacognition and literacy instruction. In S. E. Israel, K. L. Bauserman, C. C. Block and K. Kinnucan-Welsch (Eds.), Metacognition in Literacy Learning: Theory, Assessment, Instruction and Professional Development (pp. 42-59). Abingdon: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[47] Schmidt, A. M., & Ford, K. J. (2003). Learning with a learner control-training environment: The interactive effects of goals orientation and metacognitive instruction on learning outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 56, 380-405. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00156.x
[48] Sheorey, R., Mokhtari, K. (2001). Coping with academic materials: Differences in the reading strategies of native and non-native readers. System, 29, 431-449. doi:10.1016/S0346-251X(01)00039-2
[49] Shuyun, L., & Munby, H. (1996). Metacognitive strategies in second language academic reading: A qualitative Investigation, English for specific purposes, The American University Great Britain, 15, 199-216.
[50] Sins, P. H. M., Vanjoohngen, W. R., Saveisbergn, E. R., & Hout- Wolters, B. V. (2008). Motivation and performance within a collaborative computer-based modeling task: Relations between students’ achievement goal orientations, self-efficacy, cognitive processing and achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 58-77. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2006.12.004
[51] Sy, B. M. (1994). Sex differences and language learning strategies. Paper presented at the 11th Conference of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages of the Republic of China, Taiwan.
[52] Tierney, J. E. (2005). Reading strategies and practices (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
[53] VandeWalle D., Brown, S. P., Cron, W. L., & Slocum, J. W. (1999). The influence of goal orientation and self-regulation tactics on sales performance: A longitudinal field test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 249-259. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.84.2.249
[54] Wang, C. K., Liu, W. S., & Chye, S. (2010). Achievement goals, implicit theories and behavioral regulation among polytechnic engineering students. The International Journal of Research and Review, 5, 1-17.
[55] Wenden, A. L., (1991). Learner strategies for learner autonomy: Planning and implementing learner training for language learners. Hertfordshire, UK: Prentice-Hall International.
[56] Wolters, C. A. (1998). Self-regulated learning and collage students’ regulation of motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 224-235. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.90.2.224
[57] Zare-ee, A. (2007). The relationship between cognitive and meta-cognitive strategy use and EFL reading achievement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2, 105-119.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.