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United Nation Development Programme, “Hijras/Transgender in India: HIV, Human Rights and Social Exclusion,” 2013. http://www.undp.org/content/india/en/home/knowledge-and-solutions/voices-of-the-marginalized/hijras_transgenderinindiahivhumanrightsandsocialexclusion/

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Social Organization of Transgender Sex Workers

    AUTHORS: Anwaar Mohyuddin, Muhammad Ali

    KEYWORDS: Guru; Chela; Khusras; Kachay; Pakay; Yar; Garria; Power Structure

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol.3 No.7, November 5, 2013

    ABSTRACT: This paper is an attempt to document life of male sex workers as transgender in Pakistan and to describe their cultural practices with reference to ritual performs on different occasion. Qualitative research methods combing in-depth interviews, FGDs, and observation were employed to gather information. An effort has been made to investigate the cultural life of the transgender and the pattern of their social interaction within the community as well as with the outsiders. Analysis based on thematic description of the themes generated after reviewing data. The research process revealed that males who were engaged in the sex industry have two types of sociological division: first, young and having male identity with potential to transform in transgender; while other transgender plays dual roles: a) within sex worker community as transgender women, b) male outside the transgender community. These males fulfill their socio-psychological and economic needs through entrance in the transgender community. Most of them consider themselves as having feminine soul and masculine body. The male engaging in sex work is a complex phenomenon with reference to their identity and performance of cultural rituals. An exploratory research study needs to be conducted to unfold the notion of dual identity which male sex workers have.