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Huang, B., Zhao, J., Unkeless, J.C., Feng, Z.H. and Xiong, H. (2008) TLR signaling by tumor and immune cells: A double-edged sword. Oncogene, 27, 218-224. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1210904

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Roles of antigen receptors and CA215 in the innate immunity of cancer cells

    AUTHORS: Gregory Lee, Suefay Liu

    KEYWORDS: Antigen Receptors; CA215; Cancer Immunity; Immunoglobulins; Innate Immunity; RP215; T Cell Receptors; Toll-Like Receptors

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Immunology, Vol.3 No.3, September 20, 2013

    ABSTRACT: Antigen receptors, including immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors, are known to be widely expressed by cancer cells through unconfirmed mechanisms and for unknown purposes. Recently, a monoclonal antibody, designated as RP215, was generated against the ovarian cancer cell line, OC-3-VGH, and was shown to react with CA215, which consisted mainly of these cancer cell-expressed antigen receptors. Experimental evidence has clearly indicated that cancerous immunoglobulins play significant roles in the growth and proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. RP215 and anti-antigen receptor antibodies were equally effective in inducing apoptosis and complement-dependent cytotoxicity reactions to cultured cancer cells. Through gene regulation studies, both RP215 and antibodies against antigen-receptors were shown to affect more than a dozen of genes involved in cell proliferation (such as NFκB-1, IgG, P21, cyclin D1, ribosomal P1, and c-fos). Furthermore, selected toll-like receptor genes (TLR- 2, -3, -4, and -9) were also found to be highly regulated by both RP215 and anti-antigen receptor antibodies. For example, RP215 and anti-antigen receptor antibodies were found to both up-regulate TLR-2 and/or TLR-3 and down- regulate TLR-4 and TLR-9 intwo types of cancer cells. Based on these studies, it is reasonable to postulate that cancerous immunoglobulins play important roles in the modulation of the innate immune system to allow the growth and survival of cancer cells within the human body. Consequently, RP215 inits humanized forms may be utilized to target cancer cells for potential therapeutic purposes.