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Creative Research Systems, “The Survey Systems: Sample Size Calculator,” 2003. http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Menopausal Perceptions and Experiences of Older Women from Selected Sites in Botswana

    AUTHORS: Njoku Ola Ama, Enock Ngome

    KEYWORDS: Older Women; Menopause; Knowledge; Perceptions; Logistic Regression; Factor Analysis

    JOURNAL NAME: Advances in Sexual Medicine, Vol.3 No.3, July 9, 2013

    ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the menopausal perceptions and experiences of older women from selected sites in Botswana. Design: This study used snowball sampling to recruit 444 older women in four health districts of Botswana. Trained research assistants administered a structured questionnaire to determine respondents’ menopausal symptoms, perceptions and knowledge of menopause and sexual experiences. Multiple logistic regression procedures were used to evaluate the association of socio-demographic characteristics with knowledge of menopause and factor analysis was used to cluster menopausal symptoms. Results: Participants had low levels of knowledge and awareness of menopause. The three most common changes identified were weakening of bones (78%), changes in sex drive (69.6%), and difficulty working (56.2%). The majority of respondents perceived menopause as freedom from menstrual cycles (85%) and cost saving (65%). Employment status was significantly associated with knowledge of menopause. The mean age at menopause was 48.9 years. With an average life expectancy of 54.5 years, there remains about 6 years of postmenopausal life. Recommendation: Public health care systems in and beyond Botswana should mobilize resources and take measures to improve older women’s awareness and knowledge about menopause-related changes through educational training and guidance to maintain active, healthy lives.