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Baumgartner, J.C. and Mader, C.L. (1987) A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of four root canal irrigation regimens. Journal of Endodontics, 13, 147-157. doi:10.1016/S0099-2399(87)80132-2

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: SEM evaluation of apical intraradicular dentine cleanliness and degree of erosion after the application of three irrigating solutions

    AUTHORS: Manuele Mancini, Luigi Cianconi

    KEYWORDS: EDTA; Nitric Acid; Phosphoric Acid; Irrigation; Smear Layer

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Stomatology, Vol.3 No.2, May 28, 2013

    ABSTRACT: Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of 37% phosphoric acid, 12% nitric acid, 17% EDTA in endodontic smear layer removal and degree of erosion in the apical third of endodontic canals. Methods and Material: One hundred and four extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomized into four groups (n = 26) and instrumented using ProTaper Universal Ni-Ti rotary instruments. Each canal was irrigated with one of the following solutions: 37% phosphoric acid, 12% nitric acid, 17% EDTA, 5.25% NaOCl (control). All specimens were then irrigated with 5 mL distilled water and dried with sterile paper points. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-WhitneyU statistical tests were used. Results: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation showed no significant differences among test reagents in smear layer removal. However, the efficacy of 12% nitric acid and 17% EDTA in removing the smear layer was significantly greater than 5.25% NaOCl (control). Degree of erosion could not be evaluated. Conclusion: Protocols used in this study were not sufficient to completely remove the smear layer in the apical third of shaped root canals.