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D. H. Lee and D. R. Jacobs, Jr., “Interaction among Heme Iron, Zinc, and And Supplemental Vitamin C Intake on the Risk of Lung Cancer: Iowa Women’s Health Study,” Nutrition & Cancer, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2005, pp. 130-137. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5202_3

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Developing a Heme Iron Database for Meats According to Meat Type, Cooking Method and Doneness Level

    AUTHORS: Amanda J. Cross, James M. Harnly, Leah M. Ferrucci, Adam Risch, Susan T. Mayne, Rashmi Sinha

    KEYWORDS: Meat; Heme; Iron; Database

    JOURNAL NAME: Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol.3 No.7, July 2, 2012

    ABSTRACT: Background: Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of Nnitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives: One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Methods: Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Results: Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Conclusions: Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome.