K. Yoshida, “The Historical of Oguraike Reclaimed Land,” Oguraike Land Improvement Organization, Kyoto, 1962.
TITLE: Reconstruction of the Lacustrine Delta and Lake Level Change Analyzing Subsurface Geology and Geomorphology: Changes That Occurred during the Holocene in the Oguraike Reclaimed Land Area, Southern Kyoto, Japan
ABSTRACT: A paleo-lacustrine delta in Kyoto, Japan was reconstructed on the basis of subsurface geological and geomorphological analysis, and paleo-lake level changes were estimated from the structure of the delta. These analyses of the study region, i.e., the Oguraike reclaimed land area provided evidence that Lake Ogura existed until about 60 years ago in southern Kyoto, Japan. The Uji river delta was provided influents to this lake until ca. 400 years ago, as is indicated by an upward-coarsening delta succession of about 2 - 4 m thickness. The lake level could also have changed in the past as a result of a change in altitude of the delta-front (foreset) and delta-plain boundary, which probably reflects the lake surface elevation. About 400 years ago, the Paleo-Uji River was separated from Ogura Lake because a levee was constructed along the river for building a castle and for constructing a waterway for transportation. As a result of this construction, the lake level that was more than 13.0 m in elevation was reduced by 1.5 m. In a more ancient times, the lake level experienced two stages—one in which the elevation was more than 13.5 m, and one in which the elevation was reduced to less than 10 m. These changes in the lake level are represented by a flat surface with four steps and small cliff of height ca. 0.5 - 2 m (relative elevation) separating them, recognized at the southern lakeshore. The observation of strata along with the archaeological survey in the north of Ogura Lake reveals that the lake level was decreased ca. 800 - 680 years ago. The lake level was at its highest during two periods, the first from before the 8th century to the end of the 8th century and the second from the 14th century to 400 years ago.