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Article citations


Cai, Y. and Corke, H. (1999) Amaranthus Betacyanin Pigments Applied in Model Food Systems. Journal of Food Science, 64, 869-873.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Formulation and Evaluation of Lipstick with Betacyanin Pigment of Hylocereus polyrhizus (Red Dragon Fruit)

    AUTHORS: Theeoo Lwin, Cho Yi Myint, Htet Htet Win, Wah Wah Oo, Khit Chit

    KEYWORDS: Lipstick, Lead, Betacyanin, H. polyrhizus, Quality, Safety, Red Dragon Fruit

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, Vol.10 No.4, December 31, 2020

    ABSTRACT: Lipstick is the most widely used cosmetic product. Although lipstick gives a lot of social, psychological and therapeutic benefits, it may harm the consumers. Because most lipsticks contained high lead level and long term use of high lead level lipstick may harm the consumers. Research findings have suggested that administration of various antioxidants can prevent or subdue various toxic effects of lead and generation of oxidative stress. Hylocereus polyrhizus (Red dragon fruit) is widely available in Myanmar and it contains powerful antioxidant amaranth colorant called betacyanin pigment. It can prevent the oxidative stress caused by low level of lead, thus suitable as natural colorant for lipstick. As a role of pharmacist, this research was intended to minimize the adverse effects of lipsticks by formulating natural lipstick with betacyanin pigment obtained from H. polyrhizus and other natural ingredients. Formulation of lipstick was carried out by heating and blending method with homogenizer at a speed of 12000 rpm. Then, pH, melting point, surface abnormalities, aging stability, perfume stability and antioxidant activity were performed as quality evaluation. Skin irritation test, microbial analysis and lead content determination were carried out as safety evaluation. Formulated lipsticks with betacyanin pigment of H. polyrhizus have acceptable quality. The IC50 of standard ascorbic acid and formulated lipstick were 4.51 μg/ml and 22.23 μg/ml respectively. In quantitative analysis for microbiological control, formulated lipstick had no visible colony and in qualitative analysis, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not detected in 0.5 g of formulated lipsticks. Moreover, lead content of formulated lipstick was only 2.9 ppm that is within allowable limit and it had negligible skin irritancy. Therefore, lipstick with betacyanin pigment of H. polyrhizus can utilize as Cosmeceutical.