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Edvardsen, B. and Imai, I. (2006) The Ecology of Harmful Flagellates within Prymnesiophyceae and Raphidophyceae. In: Granēli, E. and Turner, J.T., Eds., Ecology of Harmful Algae, Springer, Berlin, 67-79.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-32210-8_6

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Harmful Algal Blooms Associated with Volcanic Eruptions in Indonesia and Philippines for Korean Fishery Damage

    AUTHORS: Tai-Jin Kim

    KEYWORDS: Harmful Algal Blooms, Volcanic Eruption, Indonesia, Philippines, Korean Fishery Damage

    JOURNAL NAME: Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, Vol.11 No.5, May 29, 2020

    ABSTRACT: Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) were analyzed to trace the outbreak of dinoflagellate Cochlonidium polykrikoides on the Korean coast from 1993 to 2019 along with relationship to volcanic eruptions. Parameters associated with blooms and fishery damage were sunspot number, El Niño/La Niña events, Kuroshio Current, and volcanic eruptions in the South China Sea including Indonesia and the Philippines. HAB development was halted in seawater due to the sulfur compounds (H2S, SO2, sulfates) from volcanic eruptions inducing the deficiency of the dissolved iron (Fe) in the seawater. Cochlonidium polykrikoides blooms could be predicted by the minimal sunspot number during La Niña event or weak volcanic eruptions in Indonesia and the Philippines. On line monitoring of HAB was suggested using a prototype detector of Cochlonidium polykrikoides at wavelength of 300 nm with the concentration linearity (R2 = 0.9972) between 1000 and 6000 cells/ml. HABs on the Korean coast were negligible when there were volcanic eruptions in either Indonesia or Philippines from May to August. Fishery damage was linearly proportional (R2 = 0.2986) to the maximal concentration of HAB while 5000 cells/ml was the minimal concentration of HAB with high linearity (R2 = 0.7629), caused by old cysts of Cochlonidium polykrikoides on the Korean coast rather than the fresh ones carried by the Kuroshio Current from the Philippines. Fishery damage was reversely proportional to the number of sunspots; the maximal number of sunspots induced frequent volcanic eruption in Indonesia and the Philippines for retardation of HAB with less fishery damage in Korea while the minimal number of sunspots caused less volcanic eruptions for thereby enhancing HAB resulting in more fishery damage. It was proposed that a yellow LED be used at 590 nm as a photochemical expellent as well as H2S gas bubbling at a 0.5 meter depth on the surface of the fish cage to inactivate chemically Cochlonidium polykrikoides due to the deficiency of essential iron in the seawater. In addition, the physical method of blanketing the cage cloth with smaller pore diameter than that of HAB was used for prevention of Cochlonidium polykrikoides penetrating into the fish cage.