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Levitas, V.I., Roy, A.M. and Preston, D.L. (2013) Multiple Twinning and Variant-Variant Transformations in Martensite: Phase-Field Approach. Physical Review B, 88, Article ID: 054113.
https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.88.054113

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Accelerated Carbonation Assessment of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete

    AUTHORS: Federico Aguayo, Anthony Torres, Yoo-Jae Kim, Omkar Thombare

    KEYWORDS: Accelerated Carbonation, Fly Ash Concrete, Relative Humidity, High-Volume Fly Ash, Supplementary Cementitious Materials

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Vol.8 No.3, March 5, 2020

    ABSTRACT: The issue of concrete carbonation has gained importance in recent years due to the increase use in supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) in concrete mixtures. While there is general agreement that concrete carbonation progresses at maximum at a relative humidity of about 60%, the rate may differ in the case of cements blended with SCMs, especially with high-volume fly ash replacements. In this study, the effect of high-volume fly ash concrete exposed to low ambient relative humidity (RH) conditions (57%) and accelerated carbonation (4% CO2) is investigated. Twenty-three concrete mixtures were produced varying in cementitious contents (310, 340, 370, and 400 kg/m3), water-to-cementitious materials ratio (0.45 and 0.50), and fly ash content (0%, 15%, 30%, and 50%) using a low and high-calcium fly ash. The specimens were allowed 1 and 7 days of moist curing and monitored for their carbonation rate and depth through phenolphthalein measurements up to 105 days of exposure. The accelerated carbonation test results indicated that increasing the addition of fly ash also led to increasing the depth of carbonation. Mixtures incorporating high-calcium fly ash were also observed to be more resistant against carbonation than low-calcium fly ash due to the higher calcium oxide (CaO) content. However, mixtures incorporating high-volume additions (50%) specimens were fully carbonated regardless of the type of fly ash used. It was evident that the increase in the duration of moist curing from 1 day to 7 days had a positive effect, reducing the carbonation depth for both plain and blended fly ash concrete mixes, however, this effect was minimal in high-volume fly ash mixtures. The results demonstrated that the water-to-cementitious ratio (W/CM) had a more dramatic impact on carbonation resistance than the curing age for mixtures incorporating 30% or less fly ash replacement, whereas those mixtures incorporating 50% showed minor differences regardless of curing age or W/CM. Based on the compressive strength results, carbonation depth appeared to decrease with increase in compressive strength, but this correlation was not significant.