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Philander, S.G. and Fedorov, A. (2003) Is El Niño Sporadic or Cyclic? Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 31, 579-594.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.31.100901.141255

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Predictions of Galapagos Volcanic Eruption, El Niño, Ecuadorian Earthquake, Global Volcanic Eruption and Forest Fire by Sunspot Number

    AUTHORS: Tai-Jin Kim

    KEYWORDS: Prediction, Volcanic Eruption, Ecuadorian Earthquake, Forest Fire, Sunspot Number

    JOURNAL NAME: Natural Science, Vol.12 No.1, January 14, 2020

    ABSTRACT: The earthquake number was correlated (R2 = 0.8781) with the volcano number in the East Pacific and Central American countries. The year of volcanic eruptions in the Galapagos Hot Spot (GHS) was proportional to the year of El Niño events (R2 = 0.9939) as well as to the year of earthquake events (R2 = 0.9943) in Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru from 1977 to 2016. Therefore, there can be El Niño and earthquake events in Ecuador, Colombia and Peru if there are strong volcanic eruptions either from aboveground volcanoes or undersea seamounts in the GHS during the maximal sunspot number’s period. Global volcanic eruptions were occurred during the maximal temperature departure, the latter being reversely proportional (R2 = 0.4512) to the sunspot number from 1980 to 2019. Forest fires occurred in middle latitude countries (South Korea, California, western Russia, Australia) around 35 degree from Pacific Equator during La Niña events at the time of the minimal sunspot number. Since there were intense forest fires in South Korea, Australia and California in 2019, more are expected in 2030 due to the 11 year cyclical variation in the sunspot number. The sequence of forest fires can be schematically summarized as below. 1) La Niña event in Equator causes the low vapor pressure of water due to the low sea surface temperature (SST); 2) There is the pumping of freshwater from the warm Pacific Ocean to cold Equator with simultaneous transfer of heat (warm Pacific Ocean to cold Equator) and mass (water enriched Pacific Ocean to water lean Equator); 3) Strong winds from dry zone pass Mountains to cause the forest fires in the residential land with bushes and trees. 4) According to the Bernoulli’s principle, the pressure gradient between the high Mountains and the low Ocean, induces the decrease of static velocity gradient for vigorously upwards flares in the Mountains and the residential land during the forest fires, which may be why it is difficult to extinguish the forest fires until burnt up bushes and trees in the Mountains and residential land with serious damages. Most effective solution to forest fires is to change the events from La Niña to El Niño for reductions of temperature and pressure gradients by Gay-Lussac’s law. Such a transition may be induced by artificial submarine volcanic eruptions among volcanoes of Fernandina, Sierra Negra and Wolf in the GHS for Korea and California. As for Australia, artificial volcanic eruptions can be caused in huge underwater volcano chain in Tasmania. The strong damages of forest fires in South Korea, Australia and California were observed in the period of the minimal sunspot number, as were in October of 2019 to February of 2020. Simultaneous transfers of momentum (velocity), heat (temperature) and mass (freshwater) were occurred from the dry zone or the hot Deserts via the Mountains and the residential land with bushes and trees to the cold Sea or Ocean. It is expected the lowest SST during the year of the minimal sunspot number to induce the strong damages of forest fires, as was in South Korea, Australia and California during the years from 2019 to 2020. CO2 emissions in Australia showed 34.5% increase, 70% coal power and no nuclear power to induce bushfires because of increases of ozone hole area and UV radiation for the hot land in the period of La Niña. Fossil fuel operation should be cut down to decrease the ozone hole area and UV radiation for weak bushfires in Australia. A few coming years may still have bushfires in Australia although their damages may not be as terrible as was in 2020. A simple remedy can be the reduction of CO2 emissions as low as possible. It was proposed that the maximal sunspot number induced El Niño event, GHS volcanic eruption and Ecuadorian earthquakes, while the minimal sunspot number induced La Niña events in Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and intense forest fires in middle latitude countries of South Korea (forest fires), Australia (bushfires) and California (wildfires).