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Needleman, I., Ashley, P., Petrie, A., Fortune, F., Turner, W., Jones, J., Niggli, J., Engebretsen, L., Budgett, R., Donos, N., Clough, T. and Porter, S. (2013) Oral Health and Impact on Performance of Athletes Participating in the London 2012 Olympic Games: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Sports Medicine, 47, 1054-1058.
https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092891

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Difference in Surface Roughness of Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate Sheet before and after Application of Finishing Liquid: Part 2 Changes over Time in Surface Roughness

    AUTHORS: Mutsumi Takahashi, Yogetsu Bando

    KEYWORDS: Mouthguard, Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate, Surface Roughness, Polishing Method, Finishing Liquid, Changes over Time

    JOURNAL NAME: Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol.10 No.6, June 6, 2019

    ABSTRACT: Surface texture of the mouthguard affects the sense of adaptation in the athlete and further affects hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes over time in surface roughness after finish polishing of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) sheets and before and after finishing liquid application, and to evaluate its effectiveness. Total of 160 specimens of EVA (3 × 3 mm) were divided into 4 groups according to polishing condition (control = unpolished; RB = Robinson-brush; LF = Lisko-Fine, and MW = Mouthguard-wheel). Polishing was performed at low speed by using a straight headpiece. The rotation speed was 5000, 4000 and 6000 rpm for RB, LF, and MW, respectively. Next, a finishing liquid was applied to each specimen. Changes over time in surface roughness before and after application of the finishing liquid were compared by a non-contact surface shape measuring machine. The arithmetic average height (Sa) was measured. The measurement time points were before application, immediately after application, and at 5, 10, and 15 min after application. The changes over time of the surface roughness of the sheet before and after application of the finishing liquid were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni’s multiple comparison tests. Surface roughness of the specimen before application became coarse in the order of control; MW, LF and RB, and Sa were about 0.21 μm, 2.03 μm, 2.94 μm, and 4.72 μm, respectively. That showed the same order after finishing liquid application. Significant decrease in Sa for RB and LF were seen at 10 min after application and at 5 min after application, respectively. Sa of MW was not significantly different before and after application. The results of this study showed that a lubricity of about 1.0 μm increases within 5 - 10 min of application of finishing liquid, but in cases where polishing was performed to about 2.0 μm; the application of finishing liquid has no ef-fect.