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Arya, P. (1998) Introduction to Micrometeorology. 2nd Edition, Academic Press, San Diego.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: An Assessment of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Turbulence in Maiduguri, Nigeria

    AUTHORS: David O. Edokpa, Vincent E. Weli

    KEYWORDS: Turbulence, Gradient Richardson Number, Maiduguri, Emissions

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Air Pollution, Vol.6 No.2, April 24, 2017

    ABSTRACT: This study examined the level of turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. Five years (2011-2015) temperature and wind speed data at 1000 mbar pressure level retrieved from Era-Interim Reanalysis Platform was used. These data were gotten at 6-hourly synoptic hours: 0000H, 0600H, 1200H and 1800H at 0.125° grid resolution. The gradient Richardson (Rig) number method was utilised in analysing turbulence across three layers: 10 - 50 m (surface layer); 50 - 100 m (mid layer) and 100 - 1300 m (upper layer). Findings shows that the surface layer is always in a turbulent state as over 95% of Rig values were below Richardson Critical (Ric) value of 0.25 with range 0.02 - 0.94. However, all values across the hours were below the Richardson Termination (RT) value of 1. Laminar conditions exist at the mid layer across the hours as 99.9% of Rig values ranging 0.88 - 8.02 were greater than RT of 1. Rig values for the upper layer were largely negative and ranged between -78.71 to -724.14. This indicates robust turbulent conditions. Turbulence generated through forced and free ascents prevailed at the surface layer and upper layer respectively. This shows that wind shear is dominant at the surface while thermal buoyancy prevails at the upper level. The months of February and September at 1200 and 1800 hours respectively are the periods of maximum (about 134 m) and minimum (below 15 m) heights were free convection destabilises forced convection in the study area. Relating findings to emission dispersion suggests that air pollutants will be transported across far and near distances at the upper layer and surface layers respectively. This is due to the stable nature of the mid layer that will limits vertical emission dispersion. Policy makers should ensure that potential emission sources stacks are above 50 m to ensure pollutants are dispersed aloft in the area.