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Bloom, B.S. (1984) The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring. Educational Researcher, 4-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X013006004

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Fine-Grained Detection of Programming Students’ Frustration Using Keystrokes, Mouse Clicks and Interaction Logs

    AUTHORS: Fwa Hua Leong

    KEYWORDS: Learning, Frustration, Detect, Keystrokes, Programming

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Social Sciences, Vol.4 No.9, September 22, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Prolonged frustration leads to loss of confidence and eventual disinterest in the learn-ing itself. The modelling of frustration in learning is thus important as it informs on the appropriate time to intervene to sustain the interest and motivation of students. To automatically detect learner’s frustration in a naturalistic learning environment, the novel use of keystrokes, mouse clicks and interaction patterns of students captured within the context of a tutoring system was proposed. The modelling approach was described and a comparison was made between the proposed model using Bayesian Network and the baseline Na?ve Bayes model. With the formulation of an overlapped sliding window mechanism, the granularity of detection was also investigated. The re-sults confirm the hypothesis that a combination of keystrokes, mouse clicks and inter-action logs can be used to accurately distinguish affective states of frustration and non-frustration amongst novice learners of computer programming in a granular fashion.