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Article citations


Minor, T. (2013) An Investigation into the Effect of Type I and Type II Diabetes Duration on Employment and Wages. Economics and Human Biology, 11, 534-544.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Comparison of the Length of Stay and Medical Expenditures among Japanese Hospitals for Type 2 Diabetes Treatments: The Box-Cox Transformation Model under Heteroscedasticity

    AUTHORS: Kazumitsu Nawata, Koichi Kawabuchi

    KEYWORDS: Type 2 Diabetes, Medical Expenditure, Length of Hospital Stay, Cox-Box Transformation, Heteroscedasticity

    JOURNAL NAME: Health, Vol.8 No.1, January 18, 2016

    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we analyzed length of stay (LOS) in hospitals and medical expenditures for type 2 diabetes patients. LOS was analyzed by the power Box-Cox transformation model when variances differed among hospitals. We proposed a new test and consistent estimator. We rejected the ho-moscedasticity of variances among hospitals, and then analyzed the LOS of 12,666 type 2 diabetes patients hospitalized for regular medical treatments collected from 60 general hospitals in Japan. The variables found to affect LOS were age, number of comorbidities and complications, introduced by another hospital, one-week hospitalization, 2010 revision, specific-hospitalization-period (SHP), and principal diseases E11.5, E11.6 and E11.7. There were surprisingly large differences in ALOS among hospitals even after eliminating the influence of characteristics and conditions of patients. We then analyzed daily medical expenditure (DME) by the ordinary least squares methods. The variables that affected DME were LOS, number of comorbidities and complications, acute hospitalization, hospital’s own outpatient, season, introduced by another hospital, one-week hospitalization, 2010 revision, SHP, time trend, and principal diseases E11.2, E11.4 and E117. The DME did not decrease after the SHP. After eliminating the influences of characteristics and conditions of patients, the differences among hospitals were relatively small, 12% of the overall average. LOS is the main determinant of medical expenditures, and new incentives to reduce LOS are needed to control Japanese medical expenditures. Since at least 99% of patients require medical care after leaving the hospital, systems that take proper care of patients for long periods of time after hospitalization are absolutely necessary for efficient treatment of diabetes.