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Werner, H. and Lefever, R. (1984) Noise-Induced Transitions: Theory and Applications in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Pricing American Options Using Transition Probabilities: A Dynamical Systems Approach

    AUTHORS: Rocio Elizondo, Pablo Padilla, Mogens Bladt

    KEYWORDS: American Options, Fokker-Planck, Black-Scholes, Samuelson, Probability Density Function

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Statistics, Vol.5 No.6, October 20, 2015

    ABSTRACT: We give a new way to price American options by using Samuelson’s formula. We first obtain the option price corresponding to a European option at time t, weighing it by the probability that the underlying asset takes the value S at time t. We then use Samuelson’s formula with this factor which is given by the solution of the Fokker-Planck (Kolmogorov) equation for the transition probability density. The main advantage of this approach is that we can systematically introduce the effect of macroeconomic factors. If a macroeconomic framework is given by a dynamical system in the form of a set of ordinary differential equations we only have to solve a partial differential equation for the transition probability density. In this context, we verify, for the sake of consistency, that this formula coincides with the Black-Scholes model and compare several numerical implementations.