Chandrawadhani, P., Nurulaini, R., Zanin, C.M., Premaalatha, B., Adnan, M., Jamnah, O., Khor, S.K., Khadijah, S., Lai, S.Z., Shaik, M.A.B., Seath, T.C. and Zatil, S.A. (2008) Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies in Pigs, Goats, Cattle, Dogs and Cats in Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Biomedicine, 25, 257-258.
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and Neospora caninum (N. caninum) in pigs in Grenada, West Indies. T. gondii is a serious zoonosis affecting the unborn fetus and immunocompromized individuals. N. caninum is a similar coccidian parasite, which is not zoonotic, but is the cause of abortion and neonatal mortality in livestock similar to T. gondii. An earlier study conducted in Grenada and using a modified agglutination test (MAT) revealed seropositivity to T. gondii in pigs. No information is available on N. caninum infection of pigs in the Caribbean islands including Grenada. Serum samples from 185 pigs in Grenada, West Indies were tested for antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 24.3% of pigs (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.12% to 30.48%) as all the tested pigs were negative for antibodies to N. caninum. Although, seroprevalence for T. gondii was higher in females (25.75%) than in males (20.70%), this result was statistically insignificant (p = 0.57). The results were similar to a previous study in Grenada confirming the continuity of infection in pigs. Human Toxoplasmosis is transmitted mainly through ingestion of tissue cysts in contaminated raw or undercooked meat or sporulated oocysts in soil, water or vegetables. Education of farmers and the Grenadian community on epidemiology of these parasites is warranted to prevent infection in pigs and in humans. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of N. caninum in pigs in the Caribbean region.