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Goreau, T.F. and Goreau, N.I. (1959) The Physiology of Skeleton Formation in Corals. II. Calcium Deposition by Hermatypic Corals under Various Conditions in the Reef. Biological Bulletin, 117, 239-250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1538903

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Electrical Stimulation Greatly Increases Settlement, Growth, Survival, and Stress Resistance of Marine Organisms

    AUTHORS: Thomas J. Goreau

    KEYWORDS: Electrical Stimulation, Corals, Oysters, Settlement, Growth, Survival, Environmental Stress Resistance, Climate Change Adaptation

    JOURNAL NAME: Natural Resources, Vol.5 No.10, July 31, 2014

    ABSTRACT: Increasing stress from global warming, sea level rise, acidification, sedimentation, pollution, and unsustainable practices have degraded the most critical coastal ecosystems including coral reefs, oyster reefs, and salt marshes. Conventional restoration methods work only under perfect conditions, but fail nearly completely when the water becomes too hot or water quality deteriorates. New methods are needed to greatly increase settlement, growth, survival, and resistance to environmental stress of keystone marine organisms in order to maintain critical coastal ecosystem functions including shore protection, fisheries, and biodiversity. Electrolysis methods have been applied to marine ecosystem restoration since 1976, with spectacular results (Figures 1(a)-(c)). This paper provides the first overall review of the data. Low-voltage direct current trickle charges are found to increase the settlement of corals 25.86 times higher than uncharged control sites, to increase the mean growth rates of reef-building corals, soft corals, oysters, and salt marsh grass— an average of 3.17 times faster than controls (ranging from 2 to 10 times depending on species and conditions), and to increase the survival of electrically charged marine organisms—an average of 3.47 times greater than controls, with the biggest increases under the most severe environmental stresses. These results are caused by the fundamental biophysical stimulation of natural biochemical energy production pathways, used by all organisms, provided by electrical stimulation under the right conditions. This paper reviews for the first time all published results from properly designed, installed, and maintained projects, and contrasts them with those that do not meet these criteria.