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Duffus, J.E., Liu, H.Y. and Wisler, G.C. (1996) Tomato Infectious Chlorosis Virus—A New Clostero-Like Virus Transmitted by Trialeurodes vaporariorum. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102, 219-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01877960

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Toxicity of Pyrifluquinazon against Greenhouse Whitefly on Tomato Produced in Greenhouses

    AUTHORS: Paul McLeod, Tahir Rashid

    KEYWORDS: Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, Pyrifluquinazon, Insecticide

    JOURNAL NAME: Advances in Entomology, Vol.2 No.3, July 14, 2014

    ABSTRACT: The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), is a major pest of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. Management in both the field and greenhouse is often based on foliar applications of insecticides. A lack of control along with resistance development requires development of alternatives to currently available insecticides. Pyrifluquinazon is a recently developed insecticide by Nichino/Nihon Nohyaku Co., Japan and is marketed in the US by Nichino America. The insecticide inhibits feeding by aphids, thrips, mealybugs and scale insects resulting in death. Because limited information exists on pyrifluquinazon effectiveness against whiteflies, tests were initiated to establish its toxicity against the greenhouse whitefly on greenhouse produced tomato. Data reported herein indicate that pyrifluquinazon was highly effective against adult greenhouse whiteflies. When adults were transferred to tomato shortly after the application had dried, mortality counts taken after 48 h produced LC50 and LC95 values of 0.2469 and 2.4826 μg·g-1, respectively. Although few adults were observed on tomato foliage 24 h post-exposure, little mortality was observed until the 48 h observation. When adult whiteflies were placed on tomato 3 d after pyrifluquinazon application, the LC50 value was 0.3343 μg·g-1 which did not significantly differ from the 0 h LC50 value. A significant increase in LC50 value was observed when adults were placed on tomato 5 d after pyrifluquinazon application. In a greenhouse efficacy trial, both the recommended pyrifluquinazon rate (46.8 g active ingredient [AI] ha-1) and a reduced rate (11.7 g·AI·ha-1) significantly reduced numbers of whitefly adults when compared to the non-treated control for 10 days. The 46.8 g·AI·ha-1 rate was as effective as the insecticide standard, imidacloprid. Pyrifluquinazon applied to tomato foliage in the greenhouse offers a useful alternative to currently available insecticides for control of greenhouse whitefly. Further, its unique mode of action may represent a new tool in management of insecticide resistance.