O’Keefe, E.A., Wood, R., Van Zyl, A. and Cariem, A.K. (1998) Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Abdominal Pain in South Africa. Aetiology, Diagnosis, and Survival. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 33, 212-217.
ABSTRACT: Objective: We describe the abdominal sonographic findings among patients with HIV-tuberculosis (TB) co-infection with advanced immune suppression before initiation of ART and relate these findings to the patients’ abdominal symptoms and CD4 T-cell count. Methods: Consecutive HIV-TB co-infected patients, qualifying for ART, were prospectively enrolled in a cohort study at the Mulago National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme clinic in Kampala, Uganda. An abdominal ultrasound was performed at enrolment. Results: A total of 209 HIV-TB co-infected patients (76% with pulmonary, 19% with extrapulmonary TB and 5% with extrapulmonary and pulmonary TB) underwent an abdominal ultrasound scan. Only 49 patients (23.4%) had a normal abdominal ultrasound. The following sonographic abnormalities were found: multiple lymphadenopathy (38%), splenomegaly (18%), renal abnormalities (14%), gastro-intestinal tract abnormalities (thickened bowel loops, appendicitis) (13%), splenic abscesses (13%) and ascites (6%). The commonest groups of enlarged lymph nodes were in the porta-hepatis (19%) and peripancreatic (17%) area and 80% of the enlarged lymph nodes were hypoechoic. Conclusion: Most patients with advanced immune suppression and HIV-TB co-infection have sonographic evidence of generalized TB with abdominal involvement, therefore Ultrasound may assist in the early diagnosis of disseminated TB.