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B. S. DeWitt, Physical Review, Vol. 162, 1967, pp. 1195-1239. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.162.1195

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Macroscopic Effect of Quantum Gravity: Graviton, Ghost and Instanton Condensation on Horizon Scale of Universe

    AUTHORS: Leonid Marochnik, Daniel Usikov, Grigory Vereshkov

    KEYWORDS: Quantum Gravity

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Modern Physics, Vol.4 No.8A, August 21, 2013

    ABSTRACT: We discuss a special class of quantum gravity phenomena that occur on the scale of the Universe as a whole at any stage of its evolution, including the contemporary Universe. These phenomena are a direct consequence of the zero rest mass of gravitons, conformal non-invariance of the graviton field, and one-loop finiteness of quantum gravity, i.e. it is a direct consequence of first principles only. The effects are due to graviton-ghost condensates arising from the interfereence of quantum coherent states. Each of coherent states is a state of gravitons and ghosts of a wavelength of the order of the horizon scale and of different occupation numbers. The state vector of the Universe is a coherent superposition of vectors of different occupation numbers. One-loop approximation of quantum gravity is believed to be applicable to the contemporary Universe because of its remoteness from the Planck epoch. To substantiate the reliability of macroscopic quantum effects, the formalism of one-loop quantum gravity is discussed in detail. The theory is constructed as follows: Faddeev-Popov path integral in Hamilton gauge → factorization of classical and quantum variables, allowing the existence of a self-consistent system of equations for gravitons, ghosts and macroscopic geometry → transition to the one-loop approximation, taking into account that contributions of ghost fields to observables cannot be eliminated in any way. The ghost sector corresponding to the Hamilton gauge automatically ensures of one-loop finiteness of the theory off the mass shell. The Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirckwood-Yvon (BBGKY) chain for the spectral function of gravitons renormalized by ghosts is used to build a self-consistent theory of gravitons in the isotropic Universe. It is the first use of this technique in quantum gravity calculations. We found three exact solutions of the equations, consisting of BBGKY chain and macroscopic Einstein’s equations. It was found that these solutions describe virtual graviton and ghost condensates as well as condensates of instanton fluctuations. All exact solutions, originally found by the BBGKY formalism, are reproduced at the level of exact solutions for field operators and state vectors. It was found that exact solutions correspond to various condensates with different graviton-ghost compositions. Each exact solution corresponds to a certain phase state of graviton-ghost substratum. We establish conditions under which a continuous quantum-gravity phase transitions occur between different phases of the graviton-ghost condensate.