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S. Takamizawa, Y. Maehata, K. Imai, et al., “Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Ascorbic Acid 2-Phosphate, a Long-Acting Vitamin C Derivative, on the Proliferation and Differentiate on of Human Osteoblast-Like Cells,” Cell Biology International, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2004, pp. 255-265. doi:10.1016/j.cellbi.2004.01.010

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Enhanced Iontophoretic Delivery of Magnesium Ascorbyl 2-Phosphate and Sodium Fluorescein to Hairless and Hairy Mouse Skin

    AUTHORS: Min Young Kang, Su Hee Kim, Young Kwan Sung, Moonkyu Kim, Jung Chul Kim, Insook Han

    KEYWORDS: L-Ascorbic Acid 2-Phosphate; Sodium Fluorescein; Iontophoresis; Transfollicular Pathway

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, Vol.2 No.4, December 31, 2012

    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AP) stimulates the growth of human dermal papilla (DP) cells, induces secretion of IGF-1 from the DP cells to promote hair shafts elongation in cultured human hair follicles, and triggers early progression from the telogen to anagen phase in mice. Since the magnesium salt of AP (APMg) is a highly hydrophilic ionic molecule, it is not easy to deliver this reagent to the skin or hair follicles by topical application alone. In order to enhance skin penetration of APMg without changing any molecular properties, a non-invasive iontophoretic delivery method was introduced. Iontophoresis of the negatively charged APMg under the electrode bearing same charge (cathode) significantly enhanced the in vitro penetration of APMg into a Franz cell equipped with mouse dorsal skin. In contrast, iontophoretic movement with the anode inhibited APMg penetration achieved with passive diffusion alone. The effect of iontophoresis on enhancing the penetration of APMg was also found to be much higher in the skin of hairy mice (3 - 8 times) compared to hairless mice (1.5 - 2.5 times). These findings indicated that iontophoretic movement induced the transfollicular pathway more strongly and effectively than the transdermal pathway. This phenomena was also demonstrated by the in vivo iontophoretic delivery of sodium fluorescein using hairy and hairless mice. The degree of iontophoretic enhancement during APMg penetration was also dependent on various conditions such as current density and application duration.