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Seager, M.J., Busuttil, A., Dharmarajah, B. and Davies, A.H. (2016) A Systematic Review of Endovenous Stenting in Chronic Venous Disease Secondary to Iliac Vein Obstruction. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 2, 555-556.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2015.12.005

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Towards a Classification of Left Common Iliac Vein Compression Based on Triplanar Phlebography

    AUTHORS: Raymond Englund

    KEYWORDS: May Thurner Syndrome, Left Common Iliac Vein Compression, Venous Collaterals, Venous Hypertensive Disease, Cross-Pelvic Collaterals, Varicose Veins

    JOURNAL NAME: Surgical Science, Vol.8 No.1, January 12, 2017

    ABSTRACT: Introduction: There is currently no consistent classification of the extent of left common iliac vein compression syndromes such that clinicians working in the area have a common terminology. Hypothesis: To create a classification of left common iliac vein compression based on the end point of triplanar pelvic phlebogrpahy. Methods: Based on 61 consecutive patients found to have left common iliac vein compression on triplanar phlebography in the course of treatment of venous disease, clinical presentation and symptomatology were retrospectively used to create a classification of left common iliac vein compression. Treatment of left common iliac vein compression was also retrospectively correlated with staging. Results: The following classification was arrived at: Stage 0, no compression and no intraluminal fibrous bands; Stage 1, evidence of compression by surrounding anatomical structures with or without the presence of fibrous bands; Stage 2: evidence of compression with or without fibrous bands as evidenced by cross-pelvic collaterals; Stage 3: compression of the left common iliac vein. Fibrous bands replaced by localised occlusion, with collateralisation and no involvement of adjacent venous segments; Stage 4a: as for Stage 3 but with the addition of thrombotic involvement of adjacent venous segments; Stage 4b: as for Stage 4a but with involvement of distal venous segments, femoral and popliteal. Stages 3, 4a or 4b correlated well with clinical presentations of DVT, PE, venous ulceration, vulval or cross-pelvic collaterals, ipsilateral limb swelling and claudication. The presence of varicose veins or recurrent varicose veins was a common finding amongst all groups. Conclusion: Acceptance of this classification system would provide a common terminology to allow more transparent assessment of modalities of treatment for this condition.