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Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1974). The personal attributes questionnaire: A measure of sex roles stereotypes and masculinity-femi-ninity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 624-635. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.64.4.624

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Comparison of Feminine Gender Norms among Spanish and American College Women

    AUTHORS: María del Pilar Sánchez-López, Isabel Cuéllar-Flores

    KEYWORDS: Spanish Femininity, Gender Roles, Feminine Norms, Cultural Differences in Feminine Norms, Spanish Women

    JOURNAL NAME: Psychology, Vol.2 No.4, July 25, 2011

    ABSTRACT: This article describes the psychometric characteristics of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI; Mahalik et al., 2005) in a group of Spanish college women (n = 383), and explores cross-cultural differences in feminine role norms. Factor analysis reveals a profile similar to the one obtained in the USA and, albeit differing in some aspects, in general it supports the authors’ proposed structure. Reliability and corelations between sub- scales were adequate. Participants endorsed less traditional views toward 4 of the 8 feminine norms of the CFNI and reported significantly less conformity than comparable American students. Only the Domestic norm re- ceived greater endorsement by Spanish women in this group. The findings support the suitability of the CFNI for use in the Spanish group and establish an empirical base for future studies of Spanish femininity. Cross-country differences are discussed.