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Article citations


Padmaraj, M.C. and Nair, S.C.K. (1985) Astrophysics. & Astronomy, 6, 165-169.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: On the Origin of Mass and Angular Momentum of Stellar Objects

    AUTHORS: Peter C. W. Fung, K. W. Wong

    KEYWORDS: Origin of Mass and Self Rotation of Stellar Objects, Angular Momentum, Fermi-Dirac Distribution

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Modern Physics, Vol.6 No.15, December 31, 2015

    ABSTRACT: The consequence of the 5D projection theory [1] is extended beyond the Gell-Mann Standard Model for hadrons to cover astronomical objects and galaxies. The proof of Poincare conjecture by Pe-relman’s differential geometrical techniques led us to the consequence that charged massless spinors reside in a 5D void of a galactic core, represented by either an open 5D core or a closed, time frozen, 3D × 1D space structure, embedded in massive structural stellar objects such as stars and planets. The open galactic core is obtained from Ricci Flow mapping. There exist in phase, in plane rotating massless spinors within these void cores, and are responsible for 1) the outward spiral motion of stars in the galaxy in the open core, and 2) self rotations of the massive stellar objects. It is noted that another set of eigen states pertaining to the massless charged spinor pairs rotating out of phase in 1D (out of the 5D manifold) also exist and will generate a relatively weak magnetic field out of the void core. For stars and planets, it forms the intrinsic dipole field. Due to the existence of a homogeneous 5D manifold from which we believe the universe evolves, the angular momentum arising from the rotation of the in-phase spinor pairs is proposed to be counter-balanced by the rotation of the matter in the surrounding Lorentz domain, so as to conserve net zero angular momentum. Explicit expression for this total angular momentum in terms of a number of convergent series is derived for the totally enclosed void case/core, forming in general the structure of a star or a planet. It is shown that the variables/parameters in the Lorentz space-time domain for these stellar objects involve the object’s mass M, the object’s Radius R, period of rotation P, and the 5D void radius Ro, together with the Fermi energy Ef and temperature T of the massless charged spinors residing in the void. We discovered three laws governing the relationships between Ro/R, T, Ef and the angular momentum Iω of such astronomical object of interest, from which we established two distinct regions, which we define as the First and Second Laws for the evolution of the stellar object. The Fermi energy Ef was found to be that of the electron mass, as it is the lightest massive elementary particle that could be created from pure energy in the core. In fact the mid-temperature of the transition region between the First and Second Law regions for this Ef value is 5.3 × 109 K, just about that of the Bethe fusion temperature. We then apply our theory to analyse observed data of magnetars, pulsars, pre-main-sequence stars, the NGC 6819 group, a number of low-to-mid mass main sequence stars, the M35 members, the NGC 2516 group, brown dwarfs, white dwarfs, magnetic white dwarfs, and members of the solar system. The ρ = (Ro/R) versus T, and ρ versus P relations for each representative object are analysed, with reference to the general process of stellar evolution. Our analysis leads us to the following age sequence of stellar evolution: pulsars, pre-main-sequence stars, matured stars, brown dwarfs, white dwarfs/magnetic white dwarfs, and finally neutron stars. For every group, we found that there is an increasing average mass density during their evolution.