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Article citations


Tse, K. (2014) MSW-Residue & Coal Co-Gasification in Lieu of Incineration. iSGA-4, Vienna, September.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Clean Coal & High Carbon Efficiency Energy Engineering

    AUTHORS: Stefan Petters, Kalvin Tse

    KEYWORDS: Atmospheric Carbon, Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Metabolism, Carbon Re-Use, Chemical Energy Content, Controlled Microbial Composting, Energy Carriers, Fossil Substitute Commodities, Intermediaries, Heating Value, Hybrid Power Plant, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Organic Waste Valorization, Photosynthesis, Productivity, Refineries

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, Vol.3 No.4, April 15, 2015

    ABSTRACT: Today we live in a world of Hydrocarbon Energy Carriers, where Carbon is always used as a Carrier for Hydrogen 1) Biomass (CH1.44O0.66 or C6H12O6); 2) Natural Gas [NG] (CH4); 3) Water Gas [C+H2O]; 4) Gasoline (C6H12, C7H18, C8H18, etc.); 5) Kerosene (C17H36, C18H38, C19H40, C20H42, C21H44, C22H46, etc.) and; 6) Crude Oil. The Carbon aggregates are all storable and have worthwhile, logistically manageable energy densities. But whenever recovering Energy from the Carbon molarities, CO2 gets emitted into the atmosphere, while separate use of Hydrogen Energy contents carried by the Carbon moieties would just generate water vapor. Hydrogen is also the most important intermediary in Refineries, hydrogenating lower grade Hydrocarbons into higher potencies, or for removing Sulfur by the formation of Hydrogen Sulfur, that can be dissociated after its segregation from the Hydrocarbon products. But most of the internal Hydrogen yields in Refineries today is used for onsite production of Ammonia as a basis for Energy fertilizers in high performance agriculture. Because Hydrogen is awkward to store and transport, most of it is currently used captive within large size centralized plants as a reactant for producing Hydrocarbon energy carriers, using the Carbon as a carrier for the Hydrogen moieties, to then be distributed over big enough areas for consumption of the such large scale plants’ volumes. With recently proven achievements of Hydrogen production from excess Wind & Solar Power by electrolysis, Hydrogen could become available in abundant quantities, to be distributed locally within the coverage area of the transmission grid such Wind & Solar installations are feeding into. In combination with Carbon as a reactant such abundant Hydrogen could also be synthesized into Hydrocarbon Energy Carriers and substitute fossil commodities.