Marine litter at (Al-Ghandoor area) the most northern part of the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea
Tariq Al-Najjar, Abd Al-Wahab Al-Shiyab
DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.311118   PDF    HTML     5,724 Downloads   10,589 Views   Citations


Composition and abundance of submerged marine litter at one selected site within a coral reef area along the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba has been estimated. The litter was collected in a clean up voluntarily campaigns that took place in the period 19 September 2006. A total of 14613 items weighing 4112.2 kg were collected during the survey. Mean litter density in the individual sampling sites varied between about 1 and 6 items/m2 with an over all mean density of 2 items/m2. The mean weight of the collected items per sampling site varied between 0.06 and 1.81 kg/m2 with an overall mean of 0.85 kg/m2. Cans accounted for 41% of the collected items, plastic was the second most popular (38%) while glass litter was the third most abundant item (17%). By comparison, other items formed only 4% of the total items collected during the campaigns. Approximately 46% of the plastic litter consisted of fragments followed by bottles bags and containers (18%). Potential sources are pointed out and recommendations and actions to deal with the problem are suggested.

Share and Cite:

Al-Najjar, T. and Al-Shiyab, A. (2011) Marine litter at (Al-Ghandoor area) the most northern part of the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Natural Science, 3, 921-926. doi: 10.4236/ns.2011.311118.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Corbin, C.J. and Singh, J.G. (1993) Marine debris contamination of beaches in St Lucia and Dominica. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26, 325-328. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(93)90575-5
[2] Garrity, S.D. and Levings, S.C. (1993) Marine debris along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26, 317-324. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(93)90574-4
[3] Golik, A. (1997) Debris in the Mediterranean Sea: Types, quantities, and behavior. In: Coe, J.M. and Rogers, D.B. Eds., Marine Debris: Sources, Impacts, and Solutions, Springer, New York, 7-14.
[4] Golik, A. and Gertner, Y. (1992) Litter on the Israeli coastline. Marine Environmental Research, 33, 1-15. doi:10.1016/0141-1136(92)90002-4
[5] Debrot, A.O., Tiel, A.B. and Bradshshaw, J.E. (1999). Beach debris in Curacao. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 38, 795-801. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(99)00043-0
[6] Gregory, M.R. and Rayan, P.G. (1997) Pelagic plastics and other seaborne persistent synthetic debris: A review of Southern Hemisphere perspectives. In: Coe, J.M. and Rogers, D.B., Eds., Marine Debris: Sources, Impacts and Solutions, Springer-Verlag, New York, 49-66.
[7] Madzena, A. and Lasiak, T. (1997) Spatial and temporal variations in beach litter on the Transkei coast of South Africa. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 34, 900-907. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(97)00052-0
[8] Ribic, C.A., Johnson, S.W. and Cole, C.A. (1997) Distribution, type, accumulation, and source of marine debris in the US, 1989-1993. In: Coe, J.M. and Rogers, D.B., Eds., Marine Debris: Sources, Impacts and Solutions, Springer New York, 35-47.
[9] Ribic, C.A. (1998) Use of indicator items to monitor marine debris on a New Jersey beach from 1991-1996. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36, 887-891. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(98)00064-2
[10] Ryan, P.G. (1987) The effects of ingested plastic on seabirds: Correlations between plastic load and body conditions. Environmental Pollution, 46, 119-125. doi:10.1016/0269-7491(87)90197-7
[11] Walker, T.R., Reid, K., Arnould, J.P.Y. and Croxall, J.P. (1997) Marine debris surveys at Bird Island, South Gorgia 1990-1995. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 34, 61-65. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(96)00053-7
[12] Williams, A.T. and Tudor, D.T. (2001) Litter burial and exhumation: Spatial and temporal distribution on a Cobble Pocket beach. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 1031- 1039. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00058-3
[13] Khordagui, H.K. and Abu-Hilal, A.H. (1994a) Man-made litter on the shores of the United Arab Emirates on the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 76, 343-352. doi:10.1007/BF00482711
[14] Khordagui, H.K. and Abu-Hilal, A.H. (1994b) Industrial plastic on the southern beaches of the Arabian Gulf and western beaches of the Gulf of Oman. Environmental Pollution, 84, 325-327. doi:10.1016/0269-7491(94)90143-0
[15] Shiber, J.G. (1979) Plastic pellets on the coast of Lebanon. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 10, 28-30. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(79)90321-7
[16] Shiber, J.G. (1987) Plastic pellets and tar on Spains Mediterranean beaches. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 18, 84-86. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(87)90573-X
[17] Shiber, J.G. and Barrales-Reinda, J.M. (1991) Plastic pellets, tar, and megalitter on Beirut beaches, 1977-1988. Environmental Pollution, 71, 17-30. doi:10.1016/0269-7491(91)90041-T
[18] Silva-Iniquez, L. and Fischer, D. W. (2003) Quantification and classification of marine litter on the municipal beach of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46, 132-138. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00216-3
[19] Kusui, T. and Noda, M. (2003) International survey on the distribution of stranded and buried litter on beaches along the Sea of Japan. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 47, 175-179. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00478-2
[20] Nagelkerken, I., Wiltjer, G.A.M.T., Debrot, A.O. and Pors, L.P.J.J. (2001) Baseline study of submerged marine debris at beaches in Curacao, West Indies. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 24, 786-789. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00091-1
[21] Wilber, R.J. (1987) Plastic in the North Atlantic. Oceanus, 30, 61-68.
[22] Pruter, A.T. (1987) Sources, quantities and distribution of persistent plastics in marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 18, 305-310. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(87)80016-4
[23] Price, A.R.G., Whitehall, T.J. and Bernard, S.M. (1987) Occurrence of tar and other pollution on the Saudi Arabia shores of the Gulf. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 18, 650- 651. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(87)90399-7
[24] Vauk, G.J.M. and Schrey, E. (1987) Litter pollution from ships in the German Bight. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 18, 316-319. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(87)80018-8
[25] Polglaze, J. (2003) Can we always ignore ship-generated food waste? Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46, 33-38. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00324-7
[26] Horsman, P.V. (1982) The amount of garbage pollution from merchant ships. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 13, 167- 169. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(82)90088-1
[27] Shaw, D.G. (1977) Pelagic tar and plastic in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea: 1975. Science of the Total Environment, 8, 13-20. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(77)90058-4
[28] Shaw, D.G and Mapes, G.A. (1979) Surface circulation and distribution of pelagic tar and plastic. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 10, 160-162. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(79)90421-1
[29] Donohue, M.J., Boland, R.C., Sramek, C.M. and Antonelis, G.A. (2001) Derelict fishing gear in the Northwestern Hawaiin Islands: Diving survey and debris removal in 1999 confirm threat to coral ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 1301-1312. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00139-4
[30] Jones, M.M. (1995) Fishing debris in the Australian marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 30, 25-33. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(94)00108-L
[31] Williams, A.T., Simmons, S.L. and Fricker, A. (1993) Off-shore sinks of marine litter: A new problem. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26, 404-405. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(93)90192-M
[32] Galgani, F., Burgeot, T., Bocquene, G., Vencent, F., Leaute, J.P., Labastie, J., Forest, A. and Guichet, R. (1995a) Distribution and abundance of debris on the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay and in Seine Bay. Marine Bullution Bulletin, 30, 58-62.
[33] Galgani, F., Jaunet, S., Campillo, A., Guenegen, X. and Hiss, E. (1995b) Distribution and abundance of debris on the continental shelf of the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 30, 713-717. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(95)00055-R
[34] Galil, B.S., Golik, A. and Türkay, M. (1995) Litter at the bottom of the sea: A seabed survey in the Eastern Mediterranean. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 30, 22-24. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(94)00103-G
[35] Moore, S.L. and Allen, M.J. (2000) Distribution of anthropogenic and natural debris on the mailand shelf of the Southern California Bight. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40, 83-88. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(99)00175-7
[36] Abu-Hilal, A.H. and Al-Najjar. T. (2004) Litter pollution on the Jordanian shores of the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea). Marine Environmental Research, 58, 39-63. doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2003.12.003
[37] Stefatos, A., Charalampakis, M., Papatheodorou, G. and Ferentinos, G. (1999) Marine debris on the sea floor of the Mediterranean Sea: Examples from two enclosed Gulfs in Western Greece. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36, 389-393. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(98)00141-6
[38] Hess, N.A., Ribic, C.A. and Vining, I. (1999) Benthic marine debris, with an emphasis on fishery-related items, surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 38, 885-890. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(99)00087-9
[39] Moore, S.L., Gregorio, D., Carreon, M., Weisberg, S.B. and Leecaster, M.K. (2001) Composition and distribution of beach debris in Orange Country, California. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 241-245. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00148-X

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.