Health Care Discrimination in HIV Care
Jayakumar Palanisamy, Senthilkumar Subramanian
DOI: 10.4236/wja.2011.13015   PDF    HTML     6,196 Downloads   11,750 Views   Citations


Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected population is experiencing enormous amount of social discrimination and stigmatization compared to other patients with any other chronic illness. Healthcare setup is not an exception where the HIV infected patients are shuttled from one place to another to get their basic services compared to HIV negative patients. This referral game of manipulation imparts additional stress to the already stressed HIV infected population. The physical and psychological impacts caused by other chronic conditions will be supplemented by social impact in the HIV infected population. This referral game in healthcare can cause the HIV infected to avoid their health seeking behavior and it may bring them back to their high risk activities, which can result in higher mortality/morbidity and failure in prevention and intervention strategies.

Share and Cite:

J. Palanisamy and S. Subramanian, "Health Care Discrimination in HIV Care," World Journal of AIDS, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2011, pp. 100-103. doi: 10.4236/wja.2011.13015.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] V. S. Mahendra, L. Gilborn, S. Bharat, R. Mudoi, I. Gupta, B. George, L. Samson, C. Daly and J. Pulerwitz, “Understanding and Measuring AIDS-Related Stigma in Health Care Settings: A Developing Country Perspective,” Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2007, pp. 616-625.
[2] V. Menon and K. Bharucha, “Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Health Care Professionals,” Journal of Association of Physicians of India, Vol. 42, No. 1, 1994, pp. 22-23.
[3] V. Chakrapani, P. A. Newman, M. Shunmugam, A. K. Kurian and R. Dubrow, “Barriers to Free Antiretroviral Treatment Access for Female Sex Workers in Chennai, India, AIDS Patient Care and STDs, Vol. 23, No. 11, 2009, pp. 973-980. doi:10.1089/apc.2009.0035
[4] N. Kumarasamy, S. A. Safren, S. R. Raminani, R. Pickard, R. James, A. K. Krishnan, S. Solomon and K. H. Mayer, “Barriers and Facilitators to Antiretroviral Medication Adherence among Patients with HIV in Chennai, India: A Qualitative Study,” AIDS Patient Care and STDs, Vol. 19, No. 8, 2005, pp. 526-537. doi:10.1089/apc.2005.19.526
[5] B. Thomas, A. Nyamathi and S. Swaminathan, “Impact of HIV/AIDS on Mothers in Southern India: A Qualitative Study,” AIDS and Behavior, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2009, pp. 989-996. doi:10.1007/s10461-008-9478-x
[6] M. Kurien, K. Thomas, R. C. Ahuja, A. Patel, P. R. Shyla, N. Wig, M. Mangalani, Sathyanathan, A. Kasthuri, B. Vyas, A. Brogen, T. D. Sudarsanam, A. Chaturvedi, O. C. Abraham, P. Tharyan, K. G. Selvaraj and J. Mathew, “IndiaCLEN HIV Screening Study Group. Screening for HIV Infection by Health Professionals in India,” The National Medical Journal of India, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2007, pp. 59-66.
[7] C. Reis, M. Heisler, L. L. Amowitz, R. S. Moreland, J. O. Mafeni, C. Anyamele and V. Iacopino, “Discriminatory Attitudes and Practices by Health Workers toward Patients with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria.” PLoS Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 8, 2005, p. e246. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020246
[8] A. O. Aisien and M. O. Shobowale, “Health Care workers’ Knowledge on HIV and AIDS: Universal Precautions and Attitude towards PLWHA in Benin-City, Nigeria,” Nigerian Journal Clinical Practice, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2005, pp. 74-82.
[9] S. Bermingham and S. Kippax, “HIV-Related Discrimination: A Survey of New South Wales General Practitioners,” The Australian and New Zealand Journal Public Health, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1998, pp. 92-97. doi:10.1111/j.1467-842X.1998.tb01151.x
[10] T. V. McCann and R. J. Sharkey, “Educational Intervention with International Nurses and Changes in Knowledge, Attitudes and Willingness to Provide Care to Patients with HIV/AIDS,” Journal Advanced Nursing, Vol. 27, No. 2, 1998, pp. 267-273. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1998.00513.x
[11] M. Fusilier, M. R. Manning, A. J. Santini Villar and D. Torres Rodriguez, “AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes of Health-Care Workers in Mexico,” The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 138, No. 2, 1998, pp. 203-210. doi:10.1080/00224549809600371
[12] U. Sambamoorthi, J. Walkup, M. Olfson and S. Crystal, “Antidepressant Treatment and Health Services Utilization among HIV-Infected Medicaid Patients Diagnosed with Depression,” Journal of Genenal Internl Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2000, pp. 311-320. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.2000.06219.x
[13] R. N. Alves, M. J. Kovacs, R. Stall and V. Paiva, “Psychosocial Aspects of HIV Infection among Women in Brazil,” Revista de Saúde Pública, Vol. 36, Suppl. 4, 2002, pp. 32-39.
[14] J. G. Rabkin, R. R. Goetz, R. H. Remien, J. B. Williams, G. Todak and J. M. Gorman, “Stability of Mood Despite HIV Illness Progression in a Group of Homosexual Men,” The American Journal Psychiatry, Vol. 154, No. 2, 1997, pp. 231-238.
[15] T. O. Nwankwo and U. U. Aniebue, “Percutaneous Injuries and Accidental Blood Exposure in Surgical Residents: Awareness and Use of Prophylaxis in Relation to HIV,” Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2011, pp. 34-37.
[16] J. Chacko and R. Isaac, “Percutaneous Injuries among Medical Interns and Their Knowledge & Practice of Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV,” Indian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 51, No. 2, 2007, pp. 127-129.
[17] P. Lal, M. M. Singh, R. Malhotra and G. K. Ingle, “Perception of Risk and Potential Occupational Exposure to HIV/AIDS among Medical Interns in Delhi,” The Journal Communicable Diseases, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2007, pp. 95-99.
[18] I. Kagan, K. L. Ovadia and T. Kaneti, “Perceived Knowledge of Blood-Borne Pathogens and Avoidance of Contact with Infected Patients,” Journal of Nursing Scholarship, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2009, pp. 13-19. doi:10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01246.x
[19] C. Roberts, “Universal Precautions: Improving the Know- ledge of Trained Nurses,” British Journal Nursing, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2000, pp. 13-26.
[20] A. Kotwal and D. Taneja, “Health Care Workers and Universal Precautions: Perceptions and Determinants of Non-Compliance,” Indian Journal of Community Medicine, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2010, pp. 526-528. doi:10.4103/0970-0218.74373
[21] A. O. Aisien and M. O. Shobowale, “Health Care Workers’ Knowledge on HIV and AIDS: Universal Precautions and Attitude towards PLWHA in Benin-City, Nigeria,” Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2005, pp. 74-82.
[22] E. D. Adinma, C. Ezeama, J. I. Adinma and M. C. Asuzu, “Knowledge and Practice of Universal Precautions against Blood Borne Pathogens amongst House Officers and Nurses in Tertiary Health Institutions in Southeast Nigeria,” Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2009, pp. 398-402.
[23] M. Chelenyane and R. Endacott, “Self-Reported Infection Control Practices and Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Risk amongst Emergency Department Nurses in Botswana,” Accident and Emergency Nursing, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2006, pp. 148-154. doi:10.1016/j.aaen.2006.03.002
[24] L. Li, C. Lin, Z. Wu, J. Guan, M. Jia and Z. Yan, “HIV- Related Avoidance and Universal Precaution in Medical Settings: Opportunities to Intervene,” Health Services Resesch, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2011, pp. 617-631. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2010.01195.x
[25] S. Bermingham and S. Kippax, “Infection Control and HIV-Related Discrimination and Anxiety. Glove Use during Venipuncture,” Australian Family Physician, Vol. 27, Suppl. 2, 1998.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.