Parent-Child Relationships in Poland and Germany: A Retrospective Study
Jochen Hardt, Malgorzata Dragan, Sonja Schultz, Anette Engfer
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.25078   PDF    HTML     6,364 Downloads   11,689 Views   Citations


The Childhood Questionnaire (CQ) was designed for adults to retrospectively describe their relationships with their parents. A cross-national survey was performed to test the intelligibility and precision of the questions and to explore cultural differences. A short version of the CQ was administered to two samples via Internet, one each in Poland and Germany. It contained four dimensions concerning each parent: perceived love, control, ambition and role reversal, all of which could be assessed reliably in both Poland and Germany. It was concluded that the Childhood Questionnaire is suitable for research in both countries. Characteristic differences between the respondents of the two countries can be explained as a function of history.

Share and Cite:

Hardt, J. , Dragan, M. , Schultz, S. & Engfer, A. (2011). Parent-Child Relationships in Poland and Germany: A Retrospective Study. Psychology, 2, 502-508. doi: 10.4236/psych.2011.25078.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ainsworth, M., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment. A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.
[2] Ainsworth, M. D., & Eichberg, C. G. (1991). Effects of infant mother attachment of mothers’ unresolved loss of an attachment Figure or other traumatic experiences. In P. Marris, J. Stevenson-Hinde and C. Parkes (Eds.), Attachment across the life circle (pp. 160-183). New York: Routledge.
[3] Boszormenyi-Nagy, I., & Spark, G. M. (1981). Unsichtbare Bindungen. Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg: Klett-Cotta.
[4] Bowlby, J. (1951). Mental care and mental health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
[5] Bowlby, J. (1958). The nature of childs tie to his mother. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 39, 350-373.
[6] Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. Vol. 1: Attachment. New York, NY: Basic Books.
[7] Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. Vol. 2: Separation: anxiety and anger. New York, NY: Basic Books.
[8] Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for behavioural sciences. Hillsdale, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[9] Engfer, A. (1997). Entwicklung punitiver Mutter-Kind-Interaktionen im sozio?kologischen Kontext.Unpublished manuscript, Paderborn.
[10] Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2001). The Christchurch Health and Development Study: Review of findings on child and adolescent mental health. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 287-296. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1614.2001.00902.x
[11] Galea, M. (2010). Does Child Maltreatment Mediate Family Environment and Psychological Well-Being? Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 1, 143-150.
[12] George, G., Kaplan, N., & Main, M. (1985). The adult attachment interview. Unpublished manuscript, Berkely.
[13] Gilreath, T. D., King, G., Graham, J. W., Flisher, A. J., & Lombard, C. (2009). Associations between maternal closeness, suicidal ideation, and risk behaviors in Cape Town. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 18, 174-179. doi:10.1007/s00787-008-0718-4
[14] Hardt, J. (2004). Psychische Langzeitfolgen manifester Kindheitsbelastungen: Die Rolle von Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen. Lengerich: Pabst.
[15] Hardt, J., Egle, U. T., & Engfer, A. (2003). Der Kindheitsfragebogen, ein Instrument zur Beschreibung der erlebten Kindheitsbeziehungen zu den Eltern. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 24, 33-43. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00218.x
[16] Hardt, J., Egle, U. T., & Johnson, J. G. (2007). Suicide attempts and retrospective reports about parent-child relationships: Evidence for the affectionless control hypothesis. GMS Psycho-Social-Medicine, 4, DOC12.
[17] Hardt, J., & Rutter, M. (2004). Validity of adult retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences: review of the evidence. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 260-273.
[18] Hunzinger, J., Egle, U. T., Vossel, G., & Hardt, J. (2007). Stabilit?t und Stimmungsabh?ngigkeit retrospektiver Berichte zu Eltern-Kind-Beziehungen. Z Klin Psychol Psychiatr Psychother journal, 36, 235-242.
[19] Kobak. (1993). The attachment q-set. Unpublished manuscript, Unpublished.
[20] Kohr, H. U. (1978). ITAMIS. Ein benutzerorientiertes Fortran-Programm zur Test- und Fragebogenanalyse. Berichte aus dem Sozialwissenschaftlichen Institut der Bundeswehr, 6.
[21] Parker, G. (1989). The Parental Bonding Instrument: Psychometric properties reviewed. Psychiatric Developments, 7, 317-335. doi:10.1016/S0165-1781(97)00113-3
[22] Parker, G., Gladstone, G., Wilhelm, K., Mitchell, P., Hadzi-Pavlovic, D., & Austin, M. P. (1997). Dysfunctional parenting: Over-representation in non-melancholic depression and capacity of such specificity to refine sub-typing depression measures. Psychiatry Research, 73, 57-71. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1980.tb00581.x
[23] Perris, C., Jacobsson, L., Lindstrr?m, H., von Knorring, L., & Perris, H. (1980). Development of a new inventory for assessing memories of parental rearing behaviour. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 61, 265-274. doi:10.1521/pedi.1988.2.2.144
[24] Pilkonis, P. (1988). Personality prototypes among depressives: themes of dependency and autonomie. Journal of Personality Disorders, 2, 144-152.
[25] Rork, K. E., & Morris, T. L. (2009). Influence of parenting factors on childhood social anxiety: Direct observation of parental warmth and control. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 31, 220-235. doi:10.1080/07317100903099274
[26] Rutter, M. (1995). Clinical implications of attachment concepts: retrospect and prospect. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 549-571.
[27] StataCorp. (2004). Stata Statistical Software (Version 9.2). College Station, Texas: Stata Corporation.
[28] Walczewska, S. (1999). Damy, rycerze, feministki. Kraków: Wydawnictwo eFKA.
[29] Zimmermann, P. (1999). Bindungserfahrungen von der frühen Kindheit bis zum Jugendalter und ihre Bedeutung für den Umgang mit Freundschaftsbeziehungen. In G. Spangler and P. Zimmermann (Eds.), Die Bindungstheorie: Grundlagen, Forschung und Anwendung (pp. 203-231). Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.