Cup Marks: Rock Art of Megalithic Stone Circles of Junapani


In India, cup marks/cupules are the earliest known form of rock art reported from various Pre-historic rock art sites. However, their occurrences have been also noticed on the megalithic tombs at various sites. Occurrence of these cup marks on the megalithic structures in Nagpur was brought to lime light as early as in 1879 by Rivet Carnac. Since then no significant systematic study was conducted on cup mark stones and their relation to the structures in which they are found. Although various scholars studying Indian rock art have systematically and scientifically studied the cupules manifested on the walls, ceilings and floors of rock shelters and caverns, as well as those exemplified on the boulders and on bed rock, they are yet to provide a convincing cultural or artistic meaning of these petroglyphs. I have studied the occurrence of cup marks pecked on the boulders of stones circles of the Megalithic burial site of Junapani in district Nagpur, India, suggests, that boulders bearing cup marks follow some directionality towards some astronomically important directions. Certain identifiable geometrical and linear cup mark patterns common in some of the burials were also discerned in the study.

Share and Cite:

Abbas, R. (2014) Cup Marks: Rock Art of Megalithic Stone Circles of Junapani. Open Access Library Journal, 1, 1-6. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1100733.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Bednarik, R.G. (2001) Rock Art Science: The Scientific Study of Palaeoart. Brepols, Turnhout.
[3] Bednarik, R.G. (2001) Early Indian Petroglyphs and Their Global Context. Purakala, 11-12, 37-47.
[4] Sharma, M.L. (1997) Rock Art in Northern Rajasthan. Purakala, 8, 25-35.
[5] Sharma, M.L. (2002) Shailchitrakala: Uttar Purvi Rajasthan ke Vishesh Sandharbh Mein ek Adyayana, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Jaipur, Jaipur,
[6] Kumar, G., Bednarik, R.G., Watchman, A. and Roberts, R.G. (2005) The EIP Project in 2005: A Progress Report. Purakala, 14-15, 13-68.
[7] Kumar, G. and Sharma, M.L. (1995) Petroglyphs Sites in Kalapahad and Ganesh Hill: Documentation and Observatopns. Purakala, 6, 56-59.
[8] Kumar, G. and Sharma, M.L. (1998) Morajhari. A Unique Cupule Site in Ajmer District, Rajasthan. Purakala, 9, 61-64.
[9] Kumar, G. and Sharma, M.L. (1999) Documentation of Cupules on Morajhari Cupule Rocks in Rajasthan. Purakala, 10, 33-44.
[10] Kumar, G. and Bednarik, R.G. (2002) The Quartz Cupules of Ajmer District, Rajasthan. Purakala, 13, 45-50.
[11] Kumar, G. and Prajapati, S. (2005) Petroglyphs Discovered in Ajmer, Rajasthan. Purakala, 14-15, 116-117.
[12] Kumar, G., Bhatt, P.K., Pradhan, A. and Krishna, R. (2006) Discovery of Early Petroglyph Sites in Chambal Valley, Madhya Pradesh, India. Purakala, 16, 13-34.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.