Chronic Lyme Disease: Persistent Clinical Symptoms Related to Immune Evasion, Antibiotic Resistance and Various Defense Mechanisms of Borrelia burgdorferi
Aaron J. Smith, John Oertle, Dino Prato
Envita, Scottsdale, AZ, USA.
DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.44029   PDF    HTML   XML   10,171 Downloads   28,674 Views   Citations


There are several factors involved in the ability of Borrelia burgdorferi to retain a persistent infection within a mammalian host. These factors of immune evasion include regulation of membrane proteins, variable epitopes of surface proteins, protection against the immune system through tick saliva, the ability to migrate to regions where it is not exposed to the immune system or antibiotics, invagination or invasion within various cells, pleomorphic forms, and the potential to produce biofilms. The window of conventional treatment for Lyme disease is short and has the potential to display different symptoms depending on the strain of Borrelia bugdorferi. These symptoms are dependent on the localization of Borrelia burgdorferi which correlates to the significance of diagnosing Lyme disease early to prevent such a spread throughout the body. Such complications of Borrelia burgdorferi may demand new clinical treatment discoveries for patient fighting the chronic form.

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Smith, A. , Oertle, J. and Prato, D. (2014) Chronic Lyme Disease: Persistent Clinical Symptoms Related to Immune Evasion, Antibiotic Resistance and Various Defense Mechanisms of Borrelia burgdorferi. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, 4, 252-260. doi: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.44029.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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