Seismic Risk Assessment of Buildings in the Extended Urban Region of Athens and Comparison with the Repair Cost


A complete research of seismic risk assessment is presented herein focused on the existing build- ings of the extended urban region of Athens in Greece. The seismic risk assessment is fulfilled by discriminating the current study in two approaches, probable and actual, conducting afterwards between them a comparison analysis. In the first part, a pilot methodology is developed for the seismic loss assessment in monetary terms regarding the buildings damages, consistent with the National Programme for Earthquake Management of Existing Buildings (NPEMEB). The building stock consists of typical building types of Southern Europe and refers to 750,085 buildings (18.80% of buildings in Greece) situated in the entire region of Athens according to the results of the 2000-1 statistical census. A wider research of seismic risk assessment could include direct losses of infrastructures and indirect economic losses. The evaluation of loss due to building damage in a certain region requires an assessment of both seismic hazard and vulnerability of the building stock in the study area. Four different existing damage scenarios are applied for the vulnerability assessment. The results of the seismic risk assessment for the four different aspects of the es- timated damage and the different soil conditions are presented in a map of the study region. The existing vulnerability curves corresponding to defined types of buildings have been derived from the National Technical Chamber of Greece and also from recently developed DPMs. The last DPMs were obtained in a previous research (Eleftheriadou, 2009) from the process of a created damage database after the 7th of September 1999 Parnitha’s earthquake and comprised 180,945 buildings which developed damage of varying degree, type and extent. In the second part of the research, the seismic risk is evaluated from the available data regarding the mean statistical repair/ strengthening or replacement cost for the total number of damaged structures (180,427 buildings) after the same (1999 Parnitha’s) seismic event. Data regarding the compatible (budget approved according to the ministry’s provisions) repair cost has been collected. The structural losses in monetary terms for the 180,427 buildings damaged structures are evaluated equal to 2450.0 Μ€, 1887.8 Μ€ and 2118.9 Μ€ based on the previously mentioned statistical seismic risk data. The statistically derived repair cost for Attica is compared with the results of the economic loss esti- mation for buildings using the aforementioned risk assessment methodology. From the analysis results, the seismic scenario based on the recently developed DPMs (Eleftheriadou, 2009) pre- sented the better correlation (2627.77 M€) with the total statistically evaluated repair cost (2450.02 M€). It is important to stress that the inclusion of the coefficient parameter S overes- timates significantly the seismic losses. The last result should be taken into consideration in future risk researches. The comparison of the estimated economic loss with the statistical repair cost calibrates the reliability of the commonly used risk assessment method and serves in the im- provement of seismic security prioritizing the criteria for seismic rehabilitation programmes of existing buildings.

Share and Cite:

Eleftheriadou, A. , Baltzopoulou, A. and Karabinis, A. (2014) Seismic Risk Assessment of Buildings in the Extended Urban Region of Athens and Comparison with the Repair Cost. Open Journal of Earthquake Research, 3, 115-134. doi: 10.4236/ojer.2014.33012.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] National Technical Chamber of Greece (NTCG) (2006) Pre-Earthquake Reinforcement of Existing Buildings. National Programme for Earthquake Management of Existing Buildings, Athens. (In Greek)
[2] Applied Technology Council—ATC (1985) Earthquake Damage Evaluation Data for California, ATC-13 Report, Ap- plied Technology Council, Redwood City.
[3] FEMA (1999) HAZUS Earthquake Loss Estimation Methodology. Technical Manual, Prepared by the National Ins- titute of Building Sciences for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington DC.
[4] Eleftheriadou, A.K. and Karabinis, A.I. (2010) Seismic Damage Scales in Reinforced Concrete Structures. Technika Chronika, Scientific Journal of the Technical Chamber of Greece, 1, 41-60. (In Greek)
[5] Dolce, M., Masi, A., Marino, M. and Vona, M. (2003) Earthquake Damage Scenarios of the Building Stock of Potenza (Southern Italy) Including Site Effects. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 1, 115-140.
[6] Karabinis, A.I. and Baltzopoulou, A.D. (2006) Correlation of Damage Factor and Repair Cost in Structures Damaged after the 7th-9-1999 Athens Earthquake. 15th Greek Conference on Concrete, B3, 294-304. (In Greek)
[7] Kappos, A.J., Lekidis, V., Panagopoulos, G., Sous, I., Theodulidis, N., Karakostas, C., Anastasiadis, T., Salonikios, T., and Margaris, B. (2007) Analytical Estimation of Economic Loss for Buildings in the Area Struck by the 1999 Athens Earthquake and Comparison with Statistical Repair Costs. Earthquake Spectra, 23, 333-335.
[8] Eleftheriadou, A.K. and Karabinis A.J. (2006) Calibration and Correlation of Structural Damage in RC Buildings to Economic Loss. Proceedings of the 15th Greek Conference on Concrete, B3, 170-181. (In Greek)
[9] Baltzopoulou, A., Plesias, A., Papakonstantinou, K., Babatsikos, K. and Karabinis, A. (2008) Estimate of the Seismik Risk of Buildings. Application to the City of Xanthi. 3rd National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Paper Code 2106. (In Greek)
[10] Dolce, M., Kappos, A., Masi, A., Penelis, G. and Vona, M. (2006) Vulnerability Assessment and Earthquake Damage Scenarios of the Building Stock of Potenza (Southern Italy) Using Italian and Greek Methodologies. Engineering Structures, 28, 357-371.
[11] D’Ayala, D., Spence, R., Oliveira, C. and Pomonis, A. (1997) Earthquake Loss Estimation for Europe’s Historic Town Centres. Earthquake Spectra, 13, 773-793.
[12] Eleftheriadou, A.K. and Karabinis, A.I. (2013) Evaluation of Damage Probability Matrices from Observational Seismic Damage Data. International Journal of Earthquakes and Structures, 4, 299-324.
[13] Faccioli, E., Pessina, V., Calvi, G.M. and Borzi, B. (1999) A Study on Damage Scenarios for Residential Buildings in Catania City. Journal of Seismology, 3, 327-343.
[14] Kappos, A.J., Panagopoulos, G., Panagiotopoulos, C. and Penelis, G. (2006) A Hybrid Method for the Vulnerability Assessment of R/C and URM Buildings. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 4, 391-413.
[15] Karabinis, A.I., Baltzopoulou, A.D. and Plesias, A.I. (2006) Estimation of Seismic Vulnerability and Risk of Buildings in Xanthi from NPSES (National Policy for the Strengthening of Existing Structures)-EPANTIK Project. 15th Greek Conference on Concrete, B3, 315-329. (In Greek)
[16] Lagomarsino, S. and Giovinazzi, S. (2006) Macroseismic and Mechanical Model for the Vulnerability and Damage Assessment of Current Buildings. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 4, 415-443.
[17] Panagopoulos, G. and Kappos, A.J. (2006) Derivation of Fragility Curves RC Buildings in Greece. 15th Greek Con- ference on Concrete, B, 564-576. (In Greek)
[18] Rossetto, T. and Elnashai, A. (2003) Derivation of Vulnerability Functions for European-Type RC Structures Based on Observational Data. Journal of Engineering Structures, 25, 1241-1263.
[19] Rota, M., Penna, A. and Strobbia, C. (2006) Typological Fragility Curves from Italian Earthquake Damage Data. 1st European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Geneva, 3-8 September 2006.
[20] Eleftheriadou, A.K. and Karabinis, A.I. (2011) Development of Damage Probability Matrices Based on Greek Earth- quake Damage Data. Journal of Earthquake Engineering & Engineering Vibration, 10, 129-141.
[21] Eleftheriadou, A.K. (2009) Contribution to the Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Structures. Ph.D. Thesis, Laboratory of Reinforced Concrete, Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi. (In Greek)
[22] Kappos, A.J., Pitilakis, K., Morfidis, K. and Hatzinikolaou, N. (2002) Vulnerability and Risk Study of Volos (Greece) Metropolitan Area. 12th ECEE.
[23] Institute of Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (ITSAK), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH) (2004) Athens Earthquake: Assessment of Vulnerability in the Disaster Area and Correlation to the Real Dis- tribution of Buildings Damage after the Earthquake. Research Project, Earthquake Planning and Protection Organiza- tion, Thessaloniki. (In Greek)
[24] Eleftheriadou, A.K. and Karabinis A.I. (2012) Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Buildings Based on a Near Field Athens (7-9-1999) Earthquake Damage Data. International Journal of Earthquakes and Structures, 3, 118-140.
[25] Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization (1997) Guidelines and Forms for Immediate Post-Earthquake Scree- ning of Reinforced Concrete Buildings. Athens. (In Greek)
[26] Eleftheriadou, A.K. and Karabinis A.I. (2011) Damage Data Derived after the September 7, Athens Earthquake. Tech- nika Chronika, Scientific Journal of the Technical Chamber of Greece, 1, 1-13.
[27] Eleftheriadou, A.K. and Karabinis A.I. (2012) Correlation of Structural Seismic Damage with Fundamental Period of RC Buildings. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 3, 45-67.
[28] Kalogeras, I.S. and Stavrakakis, G.N. (2001) The Athens, Greece September 7th, 1999 Earthquake: Strong Motion Da- ta Processing (7/9/1999-31/3/2000). National Observatory of Athens, Geodynamic Institute, publ.14, Cd-Rom with User’s Manual.
[29] Gazetas, G. (2001) Computational and Experimental Assessment of Strong Motion within the Meizoseismal Area of Parnitha, 7-9-99, Earthquake. Technical Report, Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization, Athens, 1-207. (In Greek)
[30] Schenková, Z., Schenk, V., Kalogeras, I., Pichl, R., Kottnauer, P., Papatsimba, C. and Panopoulou, G. (2007) Isoseis- mal Maps Drawing by the Kriging Method. Journal of Seismology, 11, 121-129.
[31] Hutchings, L., Ioannidou, E., Foxall, W., Voulgaris, N., Savy, J., Kalogeras, I., Scognamiglio, L. and Stavrakakis, G. (2007) A Physically Based Strong Ground-Motion Prediction Methodology; Application to PSHA and the 1999 MW= 6.0 Athens Earthquake. Geophysical Journal International, 168, 659-680.
[32] Baltzopoulou, A.D., Eleftheriadou A.K. and Karabinis A.I. (2012) Seismic Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of the Building Stock of Attica (Greece) and Correlation to the Actual Repair Cost. Proceedings of the 15th World Confe- rence on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, 24-28 September 2012.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.