Gas Exchange and Growth of Medicinal Plant Subjected to Salinity and Application of Biofertilizers


The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of biofertilizers and saline waters on gas exchange and growth of medicinal plant Plectrantus amboinicus. The experiment was conducted in the period February to May 2013 in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement, with two levels of salinity of irrigation water (ECw: 0.7 and 3.1 dS m-1) and four levels of bovine liquid biofertilizer applied to the soil, corresponding to 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of the soil volume, with five replications. The experiment lasted 60 days, counted from the beginning of the treatments. The stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis (A), transpiration (E), intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) were performed at the end of the experiment, and the height, number of leaves and stem diameter at the beginning and at the end. Generally plants subjected to salinity of irrigation water of 3.1 dS m-1 had the lowest values of gas exchange. Moreover, the application of biofertilizers and the interaction between this and salinity did not affect any growth variable studied except the stem length in the final phase which was influenced by salinity at 5% probability by F test. The average values of this variable were 57.22 cm and 69.65 cm when applied water ECw: 0.7 to 3.1 dS m-1, respectively. The application of biofertilizers can reduce the effect of salinity on the final plant height of Plectrantus amboinicus, especially when the plants were fertilized with a dose of 20% of biofertilizers.

Share and Cite:

da Silva Mesquita, S. , da Silva, J. , da Costa, R. , dos Santos, M. , Lacerda, C. , Amorim, A. and Esmeraldo Bezerra, A. (2014) Gas Exchange and Growth of Medicinal Plant Subjected to Salinity and Application of Biofertilizers. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 2520-2527. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.516266.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ashraf, M. (2002) Salt Tolerance of Cotton: Some New Advances. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 21, 1-30.
[2] Munns, R. (2002) Comparative Physiology of Salt and Water Stress. Plant, Cell and Environment, 25, 239-250.
[3] Tester, M. and Davenport, R. (2003) Na+ Tolerance and Na+ Transport in Higher Plants. Annals of Botany, 91, 1-25.
[4] Reeve, R.C. and Fireman, M. (1967) Salt Problems in Relation to Irrigation. In: Hagan, R.M., Haise, H.R. and Edminster, T.W., Eds., Irrigation of Agricultural Lands, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 988-1008.
[5] Khan, M.A., Ansari, R., Ali, H., Gul, B. and Nielsen, B.L. (2009) Panicum turgidum, a Potentially Sustainable Cattle Feed Alternative to Maize for Saline Areas. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 129, 542-546.
[6] Yensen, N.P. and Biel, K.Y. (2006) Soil Remediation via Salt-Conduction and the Hypotheses of Halosynthesis and photoprotection, Tasks for Vegetation Science Series 40. Ecophysiology of High Salinity Tolerant Plants, 313-344.
[7] Kafi, M., Asadi, H. and Ganjeali, A. (2010) Possible Utilization of High-Salinity Waters and Application of Low Amounts of Water for Production of the Halophyte Kochia scoparia as Alternative Fodder in Saline Agroecosystems. Agricultural Water Management, 97, 139-147.
[8] Larcher, W. (2003) Physiological Plant Ecology: Ecophysiology and Stress Physiology of functional groups. 4th Edition, Springer, New York, 513.
[9] Munns, R. and Tester, M. (2008) Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance. Annual Reviews Plant Biology, 59, 651-681.
[10] Ashraf, M., Mukhtar, N., Rehman, S. and Rha, E.S. (2004) Salt-Induced Changes in Photosynthetic Activity and Growth in a Potential Medicinal Plant Bishop’s Weed (Ammi majus L.), Photosynthetica, 42, 543-550.
[11] Baalousha, M., Motelica-Heino, M. and Coustumer, P.L. (2006) Conformation and Size of Humic Substances: Effects of Major Cation Concentration and Type, pH, Salinity, and Residence Time. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 272, 48-55.
[12] Cavalcante, L.F., Vieira, M.S., Santos, A. F., Oliveira, W.M. and Nascimento, J.A.M. (2010) água salina e esterco bovino líquido na formação de mudas de goiabeira cultivar paluma. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 32, 251-261.
[13] Kaliappan, N.D. and Viswanathan, P.K. (2008) Pharmacognostical Studies on the Leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng. International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 2, 182-184.
[14] Morton, J.F. (2010) Country Borage (Coleus amboinicus Lour.): A Potent Flavoring and Medicinal Plant. Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants, 1, 77-90.
[15] Jain, S.K. and Lata, S. (1996) Amazonian Uses of Some Plants Growing in India. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, 4, 21-23.
[16] Omolo, M.O., Okinyo, D., Ndiege, I.O., Lwande, W. and Hassanali, A. (2004) Repellency of Essential Oils of Some Kenyan Plants against Anopheles gambiae. Phytochemisty, 65, 2797-2802.
[17] Purseglove, J.W. (1991) Tropical Crops. Dicotyledons. Longman Scientific and Technical. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York.
[18] Epling (1981) P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Herbarium Specimen held at K Collected from the Pacific (Epling 18080).
[19] Kuebel, K.R. and Tucker, A.O. (1988) Vietnamese Culinary Herbs in the United States. Economic Botany, 42, 413-419.
[20] Bodner, C.C. and Gereau, R.E. (1988) A Contribution to Bontoc Ethnobotany. Economic Botany, 42, 307-369.
[21] Craig, Mayenda (1990) P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Herbarium Specimen held at K. Collected from the Pacific (Craig & Mayenda 25).
[22] Brown, D. (1997) Grenada: Isle of Spices. Herbs, 22, 6-7.
[23] Gibberd, M.R., Turner, N.C. and Storey, R. (2002) Influence of Saline Irrigation on Growth, Ion Accumulation and Partitioning, and Leaf Gas Exchange of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) Annals of Botany, 90, 715-724.
[24] Tezara, W., Mitchell, V., Driscoll, S.P., Lawlor, D.W. (2002) Effects of Water Deficit and Its Interaction with CO2 Supply on the Biochemistry and Physiology of Photosynthesis in Sunflower. Journal of Experimental Botany, 53, 1781-1791.
[25] Ashraf, M. and Shahbaz, M. (2003) Assessment of Genotypic Variation in Salt Tolerance of early CIMMYT Hexaploid Wheat Germplasm Using Photosynthetic Capacity and Water Relations as Selection Criteria. Photosynthetica, 41, 273-280.
[26] Pascale, S.D. and Barbieri, G. (1995) Effect of Soil Salinity from Long-Term Irrigation with Saline-Sodic Water on Yield and Quality of Winter Vegetable Crops. Scientia Horticulturae, 64, 145-147.
[27] Goldstein, G., Drake, D.R., Alpha, C., Melcher, P., Heraux, J. and Azocar, A. (1996) Growth and Photosynthetic Responses of Scaevola sericea, a Hawaiian Coastal Shrub, to Substrate Salinity and Salt Spray. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 157, 171-179.
[28] Downton, W.J.S., Loveys, B.R. and Grant, W.J.R. (1990) Salinity Effects on the Stomatal Behaviour of Grapevine. New Phytologist, 116, 499-503.
[29] Yeo, A.R., Lee, K.S., Izard, P., Boursier, P.J. and Flowers, T.J. (1991) Short and Long Term Effects of Salinity on Leaf Growth in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Experimental Botany, 42, 881-889.
[30] Curtis, P.S. and Läuchli, A. (1986) The Role of Leaf Area Development and Photosynthetic Capacity in Determining Growth of Kenaf under Moderate Salt Stress. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 13, 553-565.
[31] Rawson, H.M., Richards, R.A. and Munns, R. (1988) An Examination of Selection Criteria for Salt Tolerance in Wheat, Barley and Triticale Genotypes. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 39, 759-772.
[32] Rogers, M.E. and Noble, C.L. (1992) Variation in Growth and Ion Accumulation between Two Selected Populations of Trifolium repens L. Differing in Salt Tolerance. Plant and Soil, 146, 131-136.
[33] Hawkins, H.J. and Lewis, O.A.M. (1993) Combination Effect of NaCl Salinity, Nitrogen form and Calcium Concentration on the Growth and Ionic Content and Gaseous Properties of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gamtoos. New Phytologist, 124, 161-170.
[34] Ashraf, M. and O’Leary, J.W. (1996) Responses of Some Newly Evolved Salt-Tolerant Genotypes of Spring Wheat to Salt Stress: II. Water Relations and Gas Exchange. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 45, 29-39.
[35] Loreto, F., Centritto, M. and Chartzoulakis, K. (2003) Photosynthetic Limitations in Olive Cultivars with Different Sensitivity to Salt Stress. Plant, Cell and Environment, 26, 595-601.
[36] Yeo, A.R. (1998) Predicting the Interaction between the Effects of Salinity and Climate Change on Crop Plants. Science Horticultural, 78, 159-174.
[37] Sousa, G.G., Marinho, A.B., Albuqueruqe, A.H.P., Viana, T.V.A. and Azevedo, B.M. (2012) Crescimento inicial do milho sob diferentes concentraç ões de biofertilizante bovino irrigado com águas salinas. Revista Ciência Agronômica, 43, 237-245.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.