Comparing the Recall to Pleasant and Unpleasant Face Pictures in Depressed and Manic Individuals


The main purpose of the present study is to compare the perception of recalling pleasant and unpleasant face pictures in the case of depressed and manic people. Methodology: The present study is an analysis based on a comparative type research; the statistical sample is made up of depressed and manic people (males) referred to LAVASANI Hospital in Tehran City using Beck’s depression questionnaire and a diagnostic interview based on (SCID) DSMIV 30 depressed individuals who were selected after the process of screening. Ranging from moderate to high depression levels (with a cut-off point of 21 and higher), samples of 30 people with manic and 30 depressed people were compared with 30 healthy individuals. It should be mentioned that three groups were convergent in terms of age, gender, marital status and educational level. Then, a test involving computer-based cognitive-neural recall (emotional facial Pictures) was carried out on the related subjects. Findings: A t test of both independent groups was used to evaluate the convergence of the groups and multi variable bilateral variance analysis (MANOVA) was used to assess the pleasant and unpleasant perception of images among three groups. The results of the study showed that there is a difference among three groups in terms of recalling pleasant and unpleasant faces so that the depressed group shows a higher level of recall in terms of unpleasant images than the other two groups, but it indicates little recall of pleasant images in comparison to the other two groups (p < 0/05). Conclusion: The findings of the present study include some explicit outcomes in relation to the application of therapeutic approaches and concentrated educational methods on the amendment of emotional bias in depressed and manic people.

Share and Cite:

Sardaripour, M. (2014). Comparing the Recall to Pleasant and Unpleasant Face Pictures in Depressed and Manic Individuals. Psychology, 5, 15-19. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.51004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ajilchi, B., & Nejati, V. (2013). Attention Bias to Sad Faces and Images: Which Is Better for Predicting Depression? Open Journal of Depression, 2, 19-23.
[2] Atkinson, R., et al. (1983). Hilligard psychology. Translated by M. N. Berahani et al. (2008). Tehran: Roshd Publication.
[3] Arjmandi Beglar, A., Nejati, V., & Najafi Kupayee, M. (2012). The effects of coronary artery bypass graft on selective attention, shifting attention, and sustained attention. Annals of Biological Research, 3, 2028-2033
[4] Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., & Lee, S. C. (1997). Attention biases for negative information in induced and naturally occurring dysphoria. Behavior Research and therapy, 35, 911-927.
[5] Bouhuys, A. L., Geerts, E., & Gordijn, M. C. (1999). Depressed patients perceptions of facial emotions in depressed and remitted states are associated with relapse: A longitudinal study. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorder, 187, 595-602.
[6] Capecelatro, R. M., Sacchet, D. M., Hitchcock, F. P., Miller, M. S., & Britton, B. W. (2013). Major depression duration reduces appetitive word use: An elaborated verbal recall of emotional photographs. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47, 809-815.
[7] Chepenik, G. L., Cornew, A. L, & Farah, J. M. (2007). the Influence of Sad Mood on Cognition. Journal of Emotion, 17, 802-811.
[8] Cusi, A. M., Nazarov, A., & Holshausen, K. (2012). Systematic review of the neural basis of social cognition in patients with mood disorders. Journal of Psychiatry Neurosciense, 37, 154-69.
[9] Dimberg, U., Thunberg, M., & Elmehed, K. (2000). Unconscious facial reaction to emotional facial expressions. Psychological science, 11, 86-89.
[10] Durta, J. S., West, V. T., Impett, A. E., Oveis, C., Kogan, A., Kelther, D., & Gruber, J. (2013). Rose-Colored Glasses Gone too far? Mania symptoms predict Biased Emotion Experience and Perception in Couples. Journal of Motivation and Emotion, in press.
[11] Foland, C. L., Altshuler, L. L., Bookheimer, Y. S., Eisenberger, N., Townsend, J., & Thompson, M. P. (2008). Evidence for deficient modulation of amygdale response by prefrontal cortex in bipolar mania. Journal of Neuroimaging, 162, 27-37.
[12] Foland-Ross, C. C., Bookheimer, Y. S., Lieberman, D. M., Sugar, A. C,. Townsend, J. D., Fischer, J., Torrisi, S., & Altshuler, L. L. (2012). Normal amygdale activation but deficient ventrolateral prefrontal activation in adults with bipolar disorder euthymia. Journal of Neuroimage, 59, 738-744.
[13] Fowles, D. C. (1994). A motivational theory of psychopathology. In W. Spaulding (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation. Integrated views of motivation and emotion (Vol. 41, pp. 181-228). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
[14] Gray, J. A. (1982). The neuropsychology of anxiety: An inquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[15] Gur, R. C., Erwin, R. J., Gur, R. E., Zwil, A. S., Heimberg, C., & Kraemer, H. C. (1992). Facial emotion discrimination, II, behavioural findings in depression. Psychiatry Research, 42, 241-251.
[16] Johnson, S. L., Edge, M. D., Holmes, M. K., &, Carver, C. S. (2012). The Behavioral Activation System and Mania. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 8, 243-267.
[17] Joormann, J., Yoon, K. L., & Siemer, M. (2009). Cognition, attention, and emotion regulation. Journal of Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology, 174-203
[18] Kellough, J. L., Beevers, C. G., Ellis, A. J., & Wells, T. T. (2008). Time course of selective attention in clinically depressed young adults: An eye tracking study. Behavior Journal of Research Therapy, 46, 1238-1243.
[19] Modinos, G., Mechelli, A., Pettersson-Yeo, W., Allen, P., Philip McGuire, P., & Aleman, A. (2013). Pattern classification of brain activation during emotional processing in subclinical depression: Psychosis proneness as potential confounding factor. Peer Journal, 1, e42.
[20] Mogg, K. & Bradlley, B. P. (2002). Selsctive orienting of attention to makes threat faces in social anxiety. Behavioral Research Therapy, 40, 1403-14014.
[21] Murphy, F. C., Sahakian, B. J., Rubinsztein, J. S., Michael, A., Rogers, T. W., & Paykel, E. S. (1999). Emotion bias and inhibitory control processes in mania and depression. Psychological Medicine, 29, 1307-1321.
[22] Murrough, J. W., Lacoviello, B., Neumeister, A., Chaney, D. S., & Losifescu, D. V. (2011). Cognitive dysfunction in depression: Neurocircuitry and new therapeutic strategies. Journal of Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 96, 553-563.
[23] Reidy, J., & Richards, A. (1997). Anxiety and memory: A recall Bias for threatening word in high anxiety. Journal of Behavior Researches and Therapy, 35, 537542.
[24] Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In S. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Social, emotional, and personality development (Vol. 3, p. 99). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[25] Sharifi, V., Asaadi, S. M., Mohammadi, M. R., Amini, H., Kaviani, H., Semnani, Y., Shaabani O., & Jalali Roudsari, M. (2004). Validity and ability of achieving the Persian version of structured diagnostic interview SCID (DSMIV). Cognitive Sciences, 6, 76-89.
[26] Spitzer, R. L. Williams, J. B., Gibbon, M., & First, M. B. (1992). The Structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). I: History, Rationale, and Description, Archives of General Psychology, 49, 624-629.
[27] Tottenham, N., Tanaka, J., Leon, A. C., McCarry, T., Nurse, M., & Hare, T. A. (2009). The NimStim set of facial expressions: Judgments from untrained research participants. Psychiatry Research, 168, 242-249.
[28] Vergara-Lopez, C., Lopez-Vergara, H. I., & Colder, C. R. (2012). Executive functioning moderates the relationship between motivation and adolescent depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, in press.
[29] Zinbarg, R. E., & Yoon, L. K. (2008). RST and clinical disorders: Anxiety and depression. In P. J. Corr (Ed.), The reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality (pp. 360-397). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.