A Study on Consumer Behavior of Commercial Health and Fitness Club—A Case of Consumers in Liverpool


Commercial health & fitness clubs are providing an important kind of sporting service. On the basis of questionnaires and interviews with relevant research results, consumers of health & fitness clubs in Liverpool area are studied about their structures including ages, genders, etc., motivation of consumption, and consumption level as well as demand characteristics. Through impressing on the wheel of consumer behavior model, the factors affecting consumer behavior are also analyzed. The most predictable and accessible segments like young adult, affluent, health or appearance conscious consumers are concluded; their lifestyles easily integrate to leisure activities, and time pressure or financial costs are their key concerns. Targeting marketing strategies of the clubs are suggested accordingly in order to design service channel, price reasonably, communicate with consumers and provide satisfying environment.

Share and Cite:

W. Zhang and Y. Li, "A Study on Consumer Behavior of Commercial Health and Fitness Club—A Case of Consumers in Liverpool," American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2014, pp. 58-69. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.41010.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. R. Solomon, G. Bamossy, S. Askegaard and M. K. Hogg, “Consumer Behavior,” 4th Edition, Pearson Education Limited, London, 2010.
[2] Keynote, “Health Clubs & Leisure Centers,” Keynote Ltd, 2010.
[3] E. Marandi and J. Harris, “The Impact of Perceived Service Provider Empathy on Customer Loyalty: Some Observations from the Health and Fitness Sector,” Managing Leisure, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2010, pp. 214-227.
[4] R. Arora, C. Stoner and A. Arora, “Using Framing and Credibility to Incorporate Exercise and Fitness in Individuals’ Lifestyle,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2006, pp. 199-207.
[5] Mintel, “Leisure Centers and Swimming Pools,” Mintel International Group, 2010.
[6] Mintel, “Exercise and Sport For the Time-pressed Consumer,” Mintel International Group, 2009.
[7] S. P. Vlachopoulos, N. D. Theodorakis and G. T. Kyle, “Assessing Exercise Involvement among Participants in Health and Fitness Centers,” European Sport Management Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2008, pp. 289-304.
[8] J. Woolf, “Competitive Advantage in the Health and Fitness Industry: Developing Service Bundles,” Sport Management Review, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2008, pp. 51-57.
[9] F. B. Kraft and P. W. Goodell, “Identifying the Health Conscious Consumer,” Journal of Health Care Marketing, 2010, pp. 18-25.
[10] Mintel, “Fitness in the Home—Taking Advantage of the Desire to Save Time and Money,” Mintel International Group, 2009.
[11] Mintel, “Health & Fitness Clubs, ‘Keeping Pace with the Needs of Cash Strapped Consumers,” Mintel International Group, 2009.
[12] Mintel, “Fitness Classes,” Mintel International Group, 2007.
[13] T. T. Campbell, J. D. Nicholson and P. J. Kitchen, “The Importance of Social Bonding and Loyalty: An Empirical Investigation within U.K. Private Health Clubs,” Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2006, pp. 49-73.
[14] M. H. Wetzel, “A Test of the Health Promotional Model with Blue Collar Workers,” Nursing Research, 1989, pp. 99-104.
[15] S. L. Dworkin and F. L. Wachs, “Body Panic: Gender, Health and the selling of Fitness,” New York University Press, 2009.
[16] J. Oliver, “Exploring the Role of Music on Young Health and Fitness Club Member Loyalty: An Empirical Study,” Young Consumers, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2007, pp. 65-72.
[17] L. G. Shiffman and L. L. Kanuk, “Consumer Behavior,” Prentice Hall, 1999.
[18] S. Della Vigna and U. Malmendier, “Paying Not to Go to the Gym,” American Economic Review, Vol. 96, No. 3, 2006, pp.694-719. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.96.3.694
[19] S. D. Vigna and U. Malmendier, “Overestimating Self Control: Evidence from the Health Club Industry,” National Bureau of Economic Research, Berkeley, 2004.
[20] Trinity Mirror, “South Liverpool Mersey Mart,” 2010.
[21] M. T. French, I. Popovici and J. C. Maclean, “Do Alcohol Consumers Exercise More? Findings from a National Survey,” American Journal of Health Promotion, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2009, pp. 2-10.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.