Dielectric Loading on Multi-Band Behaviors of Pentagonal Fractal Patch Antennas


This paper describes the multiband behaviour as well as the response for dielectric loading of a pentagonal fractal patch antenna designed at frequency f = 2.45 GHz. The proposed antenna shape has been obtained by introducing slots in a pentagonal patch antenna up to second iteration. Detailed design steps and results of the designs are studied and investigated in this paper. Simulated and measured results reveal that the antenna will be operated at three different frequency bands—2.17 GHz, 3.56 GHz, and 7.93 GHz with acceptable performances (i.e. VSWR < 2). The measured results for the antennas are in good agreement with simulated results. The proposed antenna maintains good radiation pattern with gain. However dielectric loading increases its radiation efficiency at the cost of significant decrease in gain and directivity.

Share and Cite:

Kumar Yadav, R. , Kishor, J. and L. Yadava, R. (2013) Dielectric Loading on Multi-Band Behaviors of Pentagonal Fractal Patch Antennas. Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 1, 49-56. doi: 10.4236/ojapr.2013.13009.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] M. Navarro, J. M. Gonzalez, C. Puente, J. Romeu and A. Aguasca, “Self-Similar Surface Current Distribution on Fractal Sierpinski Antenna Verified with Infra-Red Thermograms,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 35, No. 17, 1999, pp. 1393-1394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/el:19990943
[2] Z. Baharav, “Fractal Arrays Based on Iterated Functions System (IFS),” Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Vol. 4, 1999, pp. 2686-2689.
[3] P. Felber, “Fractal Antennas—A Literature Study,” A Project Report for ECE 576 Illinois Institute of Technology, 2001.
[4] K. Sathya, “Size Reduction of Low Frequency Microstrip Patch Antennas with Koch Fractal Slots,” M. Tech Thesis, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
[5] P. Hazdra and M. Mazánek, “The Miniature Inverted Koch Square Microstrip Patch Antenna,” Proceedings of ISAP 2005, Seoul, 2005, pp.121-124.
[6] V. R. Gupta and N. Gupta, “Two Compact Microstrip Patch Antennas for 2.4 GHz Band—A Comparison,” Microwave Review, 2006, pp. 29-31. http://www.mtt-serbia.org.rs/microwave_review/pdf/Vol12No2-05-VGupta.pdf
[7] V. R. Gupta and N. Gupta, “Analysis of a Fractal Microstrip Patch Antenna,” International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2007, pp. 124- 129.
[8] F. H. Kashani, et al., “A Novel Broadband Fractal Sierpinski Shaped, Microstrip Antenna,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 4, 2008, pp. 179-190.
[9] A. Azari, “Ultra Wideband Fractal Microstrip Antenna Design,” Progress Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 2, 2008, pp. 7-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.2528/PIERC08031005
[10] J. F. Jibrael and M. H. Hammed, “A New Multiband Patch Microstrip Plusses Fractal Antenna for Wireless Applications,” ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 8, 2010, pp. 17-21.
[11] L. Economou, et al., “Circular Microstrip Patches Antennas on Glass for Vehicle Applications,” IEE Proceedings of Microwave Antennas Propagation, Vol. 145, No. 5, 1998, pp. 416-420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/ip-map:19982250
[12] D. D. Krishna, et al., “Compact Dual Band Slot-Loaded Circular Microstrip Antenna with a Superstrate,” Progress in Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 83, 2008, pp. 245- 255. http://dx.doi.org/10.2528/PIER08052201
[13] M. Tecpoyotl-Torres, et al., “Pentagonal Microstrip Antenna Equivalent to a Circular Microstrip Antenna for GPS Operation Frequency,” Programación Matemática y Software, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2009, pp. 200-208.
[14] G. Kumar and K. P. Ray, “Broadband Microstrip Antennas,” Artech House Publishers, London, 2003.
[15] I. Bahl, P. Bhartia and S. Stuchly, “Design of Microstrip Antennas Covered with a Dielectric Layer,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 30, No. 2, 1982, pp. 314-318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TAP.1982.1142766

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.