Concentration of Fluoride and Arsenic in Bottled Drinking Water in Durango City, Mexico


Arsenic and fluoride are elements known to cause human health problems and it has been documented that both elements are found in high concentrations in the Guadiana Valley aquifer, in the state of Durango, Mexico. Since underground water is the source for potable water bottling companies commercialized in Durango City; such high concentrations reduced the quality of bottled water for human consumption according to NOM-041-SSA1-1993. Legislation establishes a maximum permissible limit (MPL) of 0.7 mg/L for fluoride and 0.025 mg/L for arsenic. In this research the main objective was to evaluate the quality of bottled water expended in Durango City with respect to the well from which water is extracted. Findings showed that the highest fluoride concentration was 5.86 mg/L (8.4 times MPL), with 100% of sampled brands exceeding the MPL (range: 1.09 to 5.86 mg/L). On the other hand, for arsenic, the highest concentration was 0.076 mg/L (threefold), with 38% exceeding the MPL (range: 0.001 to 0.076 ppm). Statistical analysis showed significant differences only for fluoride, according to Fisher LSD (Least Significant Difference) test, with an F value of 14.5 at a p value of 0.0005. According to the comparison between the quantified concentrations in bottled water and groundwater, it was found that groundwater was subjected to treatment; however, although a significant decrease in fluoride and arsenic concentration was observed, the removal processes used were not efficient to meet set standards.

Share and Cite:

M. Martínez-Prado, M. Pérez-López, M. Rosa and C. González-Nevarez, "Concentration of Fluoride and Arsenic in Bottled Drinking Water in Durango City, Mexico," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 12B, 2013, pp. 8-13. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.412A2002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] C. A. Scott, “The Water-Energy-Climate Nexus: Resources and Policy Outlook for Aquifers in Mexico,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 47, No. 6, 2011, pp. 1-18.
[2] Secretariat of Natural Resources and Environment, Government of the State of Durango, “Environmental and Ecological Management of Durango State and Annex of Ecological Management Model,” 2009. SRNyMA, Secretaría de Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, Gobierno del Estado de Durango, “Ordenamiento Ecológico del Estado de Durango y Anexo Modelo de Ordenamiento Ecológico,” 2009.
[3] Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources, “Modification to the NOM-127-SSA1-1994. Environmental Health. Water for Use and Human Consumption. Quality Permissible Limits and Treatments for Water Potabilization,” Official Journal Federation, 2000. SEMARNAT, Secretariat de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, “Modificación a la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-127-SSA1-1994. Salud Ambiental. Agua para Uso y Consumo Humano. Límites Permisibles de Calidad y Tratamientos a que Debe Someterse el Agua para su Potabilización,” Diario Oficial de la Federación, 22 de Noviembre del 2000.
[4] I. Flores-Montenegro, “Evaluation of Fluoride and Arsenic Concentration in Guadiana Valley Drinking Water and Removal Alternatives,” M.Sc. Thesis, Technological Institute of Durango, Durango, 1998. “Evaluación de las Concentraciones de Flúor y Arsénico en el Agua Potable del Valle del Guadiana y Alternativas de Remoción,” Tesis de Maestría, Instituto Tecnológico de Durango, México,1998.
[5] National Water Commission, General Technical Groundwater Management, “Determination of Water Availability in the Guadiana Valley Aquifer, State of Durango,” 2002. CNA, Comisión Nacional del Agua. Subdirección General Técnica Gerencia de Aguas Subterráneas, “Determinación de la Disponibilidad de Agua en el Acuífero Valle del Guadiana, Estado de Durango,” 30 de Abril del 2002.
[6] C. C. González-Nevarez, “Concentration Change of Arsenic and Fluoride in the Guadiana Valley Aquifer and Its Relationship to Static Level,” M.Sc. Thesis, Technological Institute of Durango, Durango, 2007. “Cambio de la Concentración de Arsénico y Flúor, en el Acuífero Valle del Guadiana, y su Relación con el Nivel Estático,” Tesis de Maestría, Instituto Tecnológico de Durango, México, 2007.
[7] M. A. Martínez-Prado, M. E. Pérez-López, I. Villanueva-Fierro and C. C. González-Nevarez, “Behavior of Arsenic and Fluoride Concentration in Guadiana Valley Aquifer of Durango, Mexico,” Journal of Environmental Protection Vol. 4, No. 12, 2013. Special Issue on Groundwater Pollution, in Press.
[8] Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources, “NOM-041-SSA1-1993. Bottled Purified Water. Sanitary Specifications,” Official Journal Federation, 1995. SEMARNAT, Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, “Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-041-SSA1-1993. Bienes y Servicios. Agua Purificada Envasada. Especificaciones Sanitarias,” Diario Oficial de la Federación: 13 de Marzo de 1995.
[9] L. M. Del Razo, M. A. Arellano and M. E. Cebrián, “The Oxidation Status of Arsenic in Well Water from a Chronic Arsenicism Area of Northern Mexico,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 64, No. 2, 1990, pp. 143-153.
[10] G. A. Wasserman, et al., “Water Arsenic Exposure and Children’s Intellectual Function in Araihazar, Bangladesh,” Environmental Health Perspective, Vol. 112, No. 13, 2004, pp. 1329-1333.
[11] A. Albores, M. E. Cebrian, I. Tellez and B. Valdez, “Comparative Study of Chronic Hydroarsenicism in Two Rural Communities in the Region Lagunera of Mexico,” Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 86, No. 3, 1979, pp. 196-205.
[12] ATSDR, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, “Toxicological Profile for Arsenic (Update),” US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington DC, 2007.
[13] E. Astolfi, A. Maccagno, J. C. García, R. Vaccaro and R. Stímola, “Relation between Arsenic in Drinking Water and Skin Cancer,” Biological Trace Element Research Vol. 3, No. 2, 1981, pp. 133-143.
[14] M. E. Cebrian, A. Albores, M. Aguilar and E. Blakely, “Chronic Arsenic Poisoning in the North of Mexico,” Human Toxicology, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1983, pp. 121-133.
[15] A. H. Smith, E. O. Lingas and M. Rahman, “Contamination of Drinking Water by Arsenic in Bangladesh: A Public Health Emergency,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 78, No. 9, 2000, pp. 1093-1103.
[16] M. T. Alarcón-Herrera, A. Martín Domínguez and I. R. Martín Domínguez, “Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water: Its Relationship to Dental Fluorosis,” Proceedings of the 28th Inter-American Conference of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Cancun, 27-31 October 2002, pp. 1-5. “Concentración de Flúor en el Agua Potable: Su Relación con la Fluorosis Dental,” Memorias del XXVIII Congreso Interamericano de Ingeniería Sanitaria y Ambiental, Cancún, México, 27-31 Octubre 2002, pp. 1-5.
[17] S. Rivera, S. Godorecci, L. Orgel, E. Diaz, T. Fichs and M. I. Martin, “Fluorine: Potential Adverse Effects,” The Revista Chilena de Pediatría, Vol. 64, No. 4, 1993, pp. 279-283. “Flúor: Potenciales Efectos Adversos”.
[18] ATSDR, Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, “Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorine,” US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington DC, 2003.
[19] L. E. Landin-Rodriguez, “Physicochemical Parameters and Concentration of Fluoride and Arsenic in Water from Wells in the City of San Luis Potosi and Conurbated Area. Alternative Treatment: Fluoride and Arsenic Adsorption on Al2O3 Activated Interphase/Aqueous Solution,” M.Sc. Thesis, San Luis Potosi University, San Luis Potosi, 2006. “Parámetros Fisicoquímicos y Concentración de Flúor y Arsénico en el agua de los Pozos de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí y Zona Conurbada. Alternativa de Tratamiento: Adsorción de Flúor y Arsénico en la Interfase Al2O3 Activada/Solución Acuosa,” Tesis de Maestría, Universidad de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, 2006.
[20] M. Bocanegra-Salazar, “Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Fluoride and Arsenic in Well Water for Consumption in High, Media, and Center Plateau Areas in the State of San Luis Potosi,” M.Sc. Thesis, San Luis Potosi University, San Luis Potosi, 2006. “Evaluación de Riesgo en Salud por la Exposición a Fluoruro y Arsénico en Agua de Pozo para Consumo de las Zonas Altiplano, Centro y Media del Estado de San Luis Potosí,” Tesis de Maestría, Universidad de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, 2006.
[21] APHA, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” 21st Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC, EUA, 2005.
[22] Secretariat of Economy, “NOM-AA-077-SCFI-2001. Water Analysis—Determination of Fluoride in Natural, Sewage and Treated Waste (Cancels: NMX-AA-077-1982),” 2001. SE, Secretaría de Economía, “NOM-AA-077-SCFI-2001. Análisis de Aguas—Determinación de Fluoruros en Aguas Naturales, Residuales y Residuales Tratadas (Cancela NMX-AA-077-1982),” 2001.
[23] Statistica, “Data Analysis Software System,” Version 7®, StatSoft, Inc., Tulsa, 2004.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.