Drug dispersion for single- and multi-lumen catheters


This study presents a comparison of the drug dispersion capability of various catheters which can be used to inject medication or stem cells into the arterial system. The study was carried out by the use of numerical simulation so that various geometric and physical operating parameters could be investigated. The blood was modeled with a power-law viscosity and the medication had two levels of viscosity to represent upper and lower bounds expected in practice. Two different medication flowrates were also incorporated into the study. Finally, the impact of an inflated balloon up-stream of the injection was studied. The artery was simply modeled as a straight circular tube with the catheters concentrically positioned. It was found that in some cases, dispersion was improved by use of a multi-lumen device, particularly when an upstream balloon was employed to regulate blood flow and drug residence time. In other cases, the dispersion from the single-lumen device was superior. Another finding was that the multi-lumen device had a reduced hydraulic resistance to blood flow, compared to the single-lumen device when an upstream balloon was inflated.

Share and Cite:

Schwalbach, D. , Plourde, B. , Abraham, J. and Kohler, R. (2013) Drug dispersion for single- and multi-lumen catheters. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 6, 1021-1028. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2013.611127.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Li, Z.-Q., Zhang, M., Jing, Y.-Z., Zhang, W.-W., Liu, Y., Cui, L.-J., Yuan, L., Liu, X.-Z. and Hu, T.-S. (2007) The clinical study of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation by intracoronary infusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). International Journal of Cardiology, 115, 52-56.
[2] Sherman, W., Martens, T.P., Viles-Gonzalez, J.F. and Siminiak, T. (2006) Catheter-based delivery of cells to the heart. Nature Clinical Practice Cardiovascular Medicine, 3, S57-S63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncpcardio0446
[3] Wu, J., Zeng, F., Weisel, R.D. and Li, R.K. (2009) Stem cells for cardiac regeneration by cell therapy and myocardial tissue engineering. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, 114, 107-128.
[4] Perin, E.C. and Lopez, J. (2006) Methods of stem cell delivery in cardiac diseases. Nature Clinical Practice Cardiovascular Medicine, 3, S110-S113.
[5] Suzuki, K., Murtuza, B., Fukushima, S., Smolenski, R.T., Varela-Carver, A., Coppen, S.R. and Yacoub, M.H. (2004) Targeted cell delivery into infarcted rat hearts by retrograde intracoronary infusion: distribution, dynamics, and influence on cardiac function. Circulation, 110, II225-II230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000138191.11580.e3
[6] Perin, E.C., Silva, G.S., Assad, J.A.R., Vela, D., Maximilian Buja, L., Sousa, A.L.S., Litovsky, S., Lin, J., Vaughn, W.K., Coulter, S., Fernandes, M.R. and Willerson, J.T. (2008) Comparison of intracoronary and transendocardial delivery of allogeneic mesenchymal cells in a canine model of acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 44, 486-495.
[7] Wollert, K.C. and Drexler, H. (2005) Clinical applications of stem cells for the heart. Circulation Research, 96, 151-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.RES.0000155333.69009.63
[8] Hou, D., Youssef, E.A.S., Brinton, T.J., Zhang, P., Rogers, P., Price, E.T., Yeung, A.C., Johnstone, B.H., Yock, P.G. and March, K.L. (2005) Radiolabeled cell distribution after intramyocardial, intracoronary, and interstitial retrograde coronary venous delivery: Implications for current clinical trials. Circulation, 112, I150-I156.
[9] Mossi, T.W. and Walike C.S. (1989) An in vitro study of the hemodynamic effects of catheter injections. Investigative Radiology, 24, 361-365.
[10] Walburn, F. and Schneck, D. (1976) A constitutive equation for whole human blood. Biorheology, 13, 201-210.
[11] Abraham, J.P. and Sparrow, E.M. (2006) Simulation of fluid flow through a trauma fluid-warming device, laboratory for heat transfer and fluid flow practice. Report AZ-1, December 2006.
[12] Abraham, J.P., Sparrow, E.M. and Lovik, R.D. (2008) Unsteady, three-dimensional fluid mechanic analysis of blood flow in plaque-narrowed and plaque-free arteries. International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 51, 5633-5641. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2008.04.038
[13] Abraham, J.P., Stark, J.R., Gorman, J.M., Sparrow, E.M. and Kohler, R.E. (2013) A model of drug deposition within artery walls. Journal of Medical Devices, 7, 020902.
[14] Abraham, J.P., Sparrow, E.M., Gorman, J.M., Stark, J.R. and Kohler, R.E. (2013) A mass transfer model of temporal drug deposition in artery walls. International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 58, 632-638.
[15] Stark, J.R., Gorman, J.M., Sparrow, E.M., Abraham, J.P. and Kohler, R.E. (2013) Controlling the rate of penetration of a therapeutic drug into the wall of an artery by means of a pressurized balloon. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 6, 527-532.
[16] Khakpour, M. and Vafai, K. (2008) Critical assessment of arterial transport models. International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 51, 807-822.
[17] Khakpour, M. and Vafai, K. (2008) A comprehensive analytical solution of macromolecular transport within an artery. International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 51, 2905-2913. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2007.09.019
[18] Wang, S. and Vafai, K. (2013) Analysis of the effect of stent emplacement on LDL transport within an artery. International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 64, 1031-1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.05.041
[19] Yang, N. and Vafai, K. (2006) Modeling of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transport in the artery—Effects of hypretension. International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 49, 850-867.
[20] Ai, L. and Vafai, K. (2008) A coupling model for macromolecule transport in a stenosed arterial wall. International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 49, 1568-1591.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.