A Better Look at Learning: How Does the Brain Express the Mind?


Learning problems in the light of PASS assessment and intervention were studied. Data for 248 subjects with specific learning impairment (SLI), dyslexia, dyscalculia, and non-defined learning difficulty were studied. Hierarchical cluster analysis of PASS scores at baseline was performed. PASS re-assessment was carried out at 6 and 12 months after 6-month period of intervention. Four statistically different cluster groups were identified. All groups, except one, showed cognitive weakness. Planning weakness, associated with other weakness, appears involved in all groups except two where isolated planning and successive weaknesses were identified, respectively. SLI, dyslexia, and dyscalculia are not homogenous entities. A kind of dyslexia is clearly linked to isolated successive weakness. SLI-expressive (SLIe) and a minority of both dyslexia and dyscalculia appear linked to successive weakness although associated with planning and additionally with attention in the case of SLIe. SLI-expressive-receptive (SLIe-r) and Dyscalculia appear linked to simultaneous weakness, although associated with planning weakness. Other kind of SLIe-r appears linked to isolated planning weakness. Other types of SLIe-r and Dyscalculia appear liked to combined planning + successive + attention weakness. Isolated dysfunctional attention does not appear in any case. After 6 months of intervention, planning improves statistically in all cases. Attention improves in few cases. Successive and simultaneous do not improve. The best result is in dyslexia, SLIe and a minority of Dyscalculia. The worst result is in those without cognitive deficiency. The effect of intervention at 6 months remains with minor changes at 12 months after 6 months without intervention.

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Perez-Alvarez, F. , Perez-Serra, A. & Timoneda-Gallart, C. (2013). A Better Look at Learning: How Does the Brain Express the Mind?. Psychology, 4, 760-770. doi: 10.4236/psych.2013.410108.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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