3D Fluorescence Characterization of Synthetic Organic Dyes—Effect of pH


The fingerprint character and high sensitivity of 3D UV-vis fluorescence spectra offer special advantages for identification of dyes in a museum or forensic setting. However, the extraction process is likely to affect the pH of the medium and, in some cases, may alter the dye itself. We report a study of 65 dyes extracted from wool fibers that are part of the Schweppe Collection of Important Synthetic Dyes. The 3D fluorescence spectra of the dye extracts at pH 1 and pH 14 are compared with the same dyes from the Schweppe solution library, run under the same conditions, as well as with the 3D fluorescence spectra of the dyes taken directly from the solution library without pH control. This analysis leads to guidelines for the use of such spectra in identifying unknown dye samples.

Share and Cite:

L. Soltzberg, S. Flynn, V. Kirch and R. Newman, "3D Fluorescence Characterization of Synthetic Organic Dyes—Effect of pH," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 4 No. 10, 2013, pp. 531-576. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2013.410067.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] L. J. Soltzberg, S. Lor, N. Okey-Igwe and R. Newman, “3D Fluorescence Characterization of Synthetic Organic Dyes,” American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 3, No. 9, 2012, pp. 622-631.
[2] “Schweppe Collection of Important Early Synthetic Dyes,” Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles (The Collection Consists of Methanol Solutions of 65 dyes Assembled by the late Helmut Schweppe of BASF GmbH, as well as Fabric Swatches Dyed with These Substances).
[3] C. Souto, “Analysis of Early Synthetic Dyes with HPLC-DAD-MS: An Important Database for Analysis of Colorants Used in Cultural Heritage,” Master’s Thesis, 2010. http://run.unl.pt/bitstream/10362/5656/1/Souto_2010.pdf
[4] X. Zhang and R. A. Laursen, “Development of Mild Extraction Methods for the Analysis of Natural Dyes in Textiles of Historical Interest Using LC-Diode Array Detector-MS,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 77, No. 7, 2005, pp. 2022-2025. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac048380k
[5] M. R. van Bommel, I. Vanden Berghe, A. M. Wallert, R. Boitelle and J. Wouters, “High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Non-Destructive Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Analysis of Early Synthetic Dyes,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1157, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 260-272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2007.05.017
[6] L. V. Belovolova, M. V. Glushkov, E. A. Vinogradov, V. A. Babintsev and V. I. Golovanov, “Ultraviolet Fluorescence of Water and Highly Diluted Aqueous Media,” Physics of Wave Phenomena, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2009, pp. 21-31.
[7] K. Yasuhira and G. Takahashi, “Fluorometric Measurement of 3-Methylcholanthrene and Its Metabolites in Tissue. I. Measurement of 3-Methylcholanthrene in Organic Solvents,” Bulletin of the Chest Disease Research Institute, Vol. 8, 1974, pp. 1-7.
[8] E. L. Wehry, “Effects of Molecular Structure on Fluorescence and Phosphorescence” In: G. G. Guilbault, Practical Fluorescence, 2nd Edition, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1990, pp. 75-126.
[9] E. L. Wehry, “Effects of Molecular Environment on Fluorescence and Phosphorescence,” G. G. Guilbault, op. cit., pp. 127-184.
[10] “The Sigma-Aldrich Handbook of Stains, Dyes and Indicators,” Floyd. J. Green, Aldrich Chemical Company, Milwaukee, 1990.
[11] W. Knoche and N. Rees, “The Kinetics and Mechanism of the Decomposition of Murexide in Acid Solution,” Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 61, No. 8, 1984, pp. 724-726. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed061p724
[12] L. J. Soltzberg, A. Hagar, S. Kridaratikorn, A. Mattson and R. Newman, “MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometric Identification of Dyes and Pigments,” Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 18, No. 11, 2007, pp. 2001-2006.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.