Walnut Trim down Lipid Profile and BMI in Obese Male in Different Ethnic Groups of Quetta Population, Pakistan


A total of 64 male obese subjects were randomized to observe the effect of 40 g of walnut in daily breakfast on lipid profile and Body Mass Index (BMI), total Cholesterol (CHO), Triglyceride (TG) High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in obese male subjects of various ethnics i.e. Baloch (B), Pathan (P), Hazara (H) and Punjabi (PU) residing in Quetta region of Balochistan for this purpose four weeks controlled study was designed. A batch of 32 obese male subjects 8 from each ethnic group as a control and another batch of 32 obese males 8 from each ethnic group as treated were selected. Twelve hour fasting blood samples a day after stoppage of walnut were taken from obese control and obese treated subjects. Daily walnut consumption in obese male subjects evidently demonstrated reduced BMI in all ethnic groups. Walnut supplementation in obese exhibited significant reduction in cholesterol level in Baloch (P < 0.001) and Punjabi (P < 0.01) males. There was profound and statistically significant [B (P < 0.05), P (P < 0.05), H (P < 0.01) and PU (P < 0.05)] elevation in HDL-C in all male ethnic groups. In male sub-population LDL-C was significantly [P (P < 0.01), H (P < 0.001) and PU (P < 0.05)] reduced in these groups. In these subjects walnut supplementation showed pronounced reduction [B (P < 0.001), P (P < 0.05), H (P < 0.001) and PU (P < 0.001)] in triglyceride levels. The constructive influence of walnut on lipid profile suggests that walnut rich diet may have advantageous effects beyond changes in plasma lipid level.

Share and Cite:

R. Mushtaq, R. Mushtaq, S. Khwaja and Z. Khan, "Walnut Trim down Lipid Profile and BMI in Obese Male in Different Ethnic Groups of Quetta Population, Pakistan," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 10, 2013, pp. 1069-1075. doi: 10.4236/fns.2013.410139.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] World Health Organisation, “Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health,” 2010.
[2] T. Lobstein, L. Baur and R. Uauy, “Obesity in Children and Young People: A Crisis in Public Health,” Obesity Reviews, Vol. 5, Suppl. 1, 2004, pp. 4-85.
[3] R. Sturm, “Increases in Morbid Obesity in the USA: 2000-2005,” Public Health, 2007, Vol. 121, No. 7, pp. 492-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2007.01.006
[4] C. L. Ogden, S. Z. Yanovski, M. D. Carroll and K. M. Flegal, “The Epidemiology of Obesity,” Gastroenterology, 2007, Vol. 132, No. 6, pp. 2087-2102.
[5] P. G. Kopelman, I. D. Caterson, M. J. Stock and W. H. Dietz, “Clinical Obesity in Adults and Children: In Adults and Children,” Blackwell Publishing, Hoboken, 2005, p. 493.
[6] F. Lavedrine, D. Zmirou, A. Ravel, F. Balducci and J. Alary, “Blood Cholesterol and Walnut Consumption: A Cross-Sectional Survey in France,” Preventive Medicine, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1999, pp. 333-339.
[7] A. Berghofer, T. Pischon, T. Reinhold, et al., “Obesity Prevalence from a European Perspective: A Systematic Review,” BMC Public Health, Vol. 8, 2008, p. 200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-8-200
[8] A. D. Sniderman, R. Bhopal, D. Prabhakaran, et al., “Why Might South Asians Be So Susceptible to Central Obesity and Its Atherogenic Consequences? The Adipose Tissue Overflow Hypothesis,” International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2007, pp. 220-225.
[9] World Health Organization, “Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic: Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity,” World Health Organization, Geneva, 1998.
[10] J. Zafar, F. Bhatti, N. Akhtar, U. Rasheed, R. Bashir, S. Humayun, A. Waheed, F. Younus, M. Nazar and Umiaimato, “Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus in Selected Urban Population of a City in Punjab,” Journal Pakistan Medical Association, Vol. 61, No. 1, 2011, pp. 40-47.
[11] S. M. Wright and L. J. Aronne, “Causes of Obesity,” Abdom Imaging, Vol. 37, No. 5, 2012, pp. 730-732. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-012-9862-x
[12] J. Juhola, C. G. Magnussen, J. S. Viikari, M. Kahonen, N. Hutri-Kahonen, A. Jula, T. Lehtimaki, H. K. Akerblom, M. Pietikainen, T. Laitinen, E. Jokinen, L. Taittonen, O. T. Raitakari and M. Juonala, “Tracking of Serum Lipid Levels, Blood Pressure, and Body Mass Index from Childhood to Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study,” Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 159, No. 4, 2011, pp. 584-590. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.03.021
[13] A. Branchi, A. Torri, C. Berra, E. Colombo and D. Sommariva, “Changes in Serum Lipids and Blood Glucose in non Diabetic Patients with Metabolic Syndrome after Mixed Meals of Different Composition,” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2012, Article ID: 215052. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/215052
[14] P. P. Toth, “High Density Lipoprotein, Cardiovascular Risk,” Circulation, Vol. 109, 2004, pp. 1809-1812. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000126889.97626.B8
[15] R. Mcpherson and G. A. Spiller, “Effect of Dietary Fatty Acids and Cholesterol on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Men,” In: G. A. Spiller, Ed., Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition, CRC Press, 1996, p. 41.
[16] J. Sabate and Y. Ang, “Nuts and Health Outcomes: New Epidemiologic Evidence,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 89, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1643S-1648S. http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736Q
[17] M. Bes-Rastrollo, J. Sabate, E. Gomez-Gracia, A. Alonso, J. A. Martinez and M. A. Martinez-Gonzalez, “Nut Consumption and Weight Gain in a Mediterranean Cohort: The SUN Study,” Obesity (Silver Spring), Vol. 15, No. 1, 2007, pp. 107-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2007.507
[18] C.-Y. O. Chen and J. B. Blumberg, “Phytochemical Composition of Nuts,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2008, pp. 329-332.
[19] M. Kornsteiner, K. H. Wanger and I. Elmadfa, “Tocopherols and Total Phenolics in 10 Different Nut Types,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 98, No. 2, 2006, pp. 381-387.
[20] E. B. Feldman, “The Scientific Evidence for a Beneficial Health Relationship between Walnuts and Coronary Heart Disease,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 132, No. 5, 2002, pp. 1062S-1101S.
[21] L. C. Tapsell, L. J. Gillen, C. S. Patch, et al., “Including Walnuts in a Low-Fat/Modified-Fat Diet Substituting Walnuts for Monounsaturated Fat Improves HDL Cholesterol-To-Total Cholesterol Ratios Improves the Serum Lipid Profile of in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 27, No. 12, 2000, pp. 2777-2783. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.12.2777
[22] G. Zhao, T. D. Etherton, K. R. Martin, S. G. West, P. J. Gillies and P. M. Kris-Etherton, “Dietary Alpha-Linolenic Acid Reduces Inflammatory and Lipid Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hypercholesterolemic Men and Women,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 134, No. 11, 2004, pp. 2991-2997.
[23] E. Ros, I. Núnez, A. Pérez-Heras, M. Serra, R. Gilabert, E. Casals and R. Deulofeu, “A Walnut Diet Improves Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects: A Randomized Crossover Trial,” Circulation, Vol. 109, No. 13, 2004, pp. 1609-1614.
[24] A. O. Ebrahim, N. S. Arash and R. Ali, “Effects of Walnut on Lipid Profile as Well as the Expression of SterolRegulatory Element Binding Protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors α (PPARα) in Diabetic Rat,” Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2012, 255-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2012.32037
[25] World Health Organization, “Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic: Report of a WHO Consultation,” WHO Technical Report Series, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2000.
[26] M. Bes-Rastrollo, N. M. Wedick, M. A. Martinez-Gonzalez, T. Y. Li, S. Laura and F. B. Hu, “Prospective Study of Nut Consumption, Long-Term Weight Change and Obesity Risk in Women,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 89, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1913-1919. http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.27276
[27] K. McManus, L. Antinoro and F. Sacks, “A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Moderate-Fat, Low Energy Diet Compared with a Low Fat, Low-Energy Diet for Weight Loss in Overweight Adults,” International Journal of Obesity, Vol. 25, No. 10, 2001, pp. 1503-1511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801796
[28] S. Rajaram and J. Sabate, “Nuts, Body Weight and Insulin Resistance,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 96, Suppl. S2, 2006, pp. S79-S86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/BJN20061867
[29] P. Garcia-Lorda, I. M. Rangil and J. Salas-Salvado, “Nut Consumption, Body Weight and Insulin Resistance,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 57, Suppl. 1, 2003, pp. S8-S11.
[30] A. Sala-Vila, M. Cofán, A. Pérez-Heras, I. Núnez, R. Gilabert, M. Junyent, R. Mateo-Gallego, A. Cenarro, F. Civeira and E. Ros, “Fatty Acids in Serum Phospholipids and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Spanish Subjects with Primary Dyslipidemia,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 92, No. 1, 2010, pp. 186-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28807
[31] G. N. Levine, J. F. Keaney, Jr and J. A. Vita, “Cholesterolreduction in Cardiovascular Disease. Clinical Benefits and Possible Mechanisms,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 332, No. 8, 1995, pp. 512-521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199502233320807
[32] D. K. Banel and F. B. Hu, “Effects of Walnut Consumption on Blood Lipids and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 90, No. 1, 2009, pp. 56-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.27457
[33] T. A. Mori, V. Burke, I. B. Puddey, G. F. Watts, D. N. O’Neal, J. D. Best and L. J. Beilin, “Purified Eicosapentaenoic and Docosapentaenoic Acids Have Differential Effects on Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins, LDL-C Particle Size, Glucose and Insulin in Mildly Hyperlipidemic Men,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, 2000, pp. 1085-1094.
[34] D. Zambón, J. Sabaté, S. Munoz, et al., “Substituting Walnuts for Monounsaturated Fat Improves the Serum Lipid Profile of Hypercholesterolemic Men and Women. A Randomized Crossover Trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 132, No. 7, 2000, pp. 538-546. http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-132-7-200004040-00005
[35] A. Chisholm, J. Mann, M. Skeaff, C. Frampton, W. Sutherland, A. Duncan and S. Tiszavari, “A Diet Rich in Walnuts Favourably Influences Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Moderately Hyperlipidaemic Subjects,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 52, No. 1, 1998, pp. 12-16.
[36] J. Sabate, G. E. Fraser, K. Burke, S. F. Knutsen, H. Bennett and K. D. Lindsted, “Effect of Walnuts on Serum Lipid Levels and Blood Pressure in Normal Men,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 238, 1993, pp. 603607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199303043280902
[37] M. Abbey, M. Noakes, G. B. Belling and P. J. Nestel, “Partial Replacement of Saturated Fatty Acids with almonds or Walnuts Lowers Total Plasma Cholesterol and Low-Density-Lipoprotein Cholesterol,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 59, 1994, pp. 995-999.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.