Ship Inspections in Invasive Species Management: Alternate Regimes and Their Properties


When it comes to inspections in invasive species management, the literature has shown that there is frequently a tension between economic cost reduction and inspection stringency. As such, we analyze the properties of two probabilistic inspection regimes that are designed to screen arriving ships in a seaport for the presence of one or more deleterious invasive species. In the first regime, the seaport inspector screens arriving ships by using fast (less stringent) and slow (more stringent) protocols. In the second regime, the inspector uses a uniformly stringent protocol with stages. We use the theory of continuous time Markov chains (CTMCs) to delineate both inspection regimes. Next, we derive some key long run performance measures associated with each of these two regimes. Finally, we discuss the implications of our analysis for practical invasive species management.

Share and Cite:

A. Batabyal and H. Beladi, "Ship Inspections in Invasive Species Management: Alternate Regimes and Their Properties," Theoretical Economics Letters, Vol. 3 No. 5A, 2013, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.4236/tel.2013.35A1001.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Z. Yang and A. N. Perakis, “Multiattribute Decision Analysis of Mandatory Ballast Water Treatment Measures in the US Great Lakes,” Transportation Research Part D, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2004, pp. 81-86.
[2] A. A. Batabyal, H. Beladi and W. W. Koo, “Maritime Trade, Biological Invasions, and the Properties of Alternate Inspection Regimes,” Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2005, pp. 184-190. doi:10.1007/s00477-004-0216-2
[3] A. A. Batabyal and H. Beladi, “International Trade and Biological Invasions: A Queuing Theoretic Analysis of the Prevention Problem,” European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 170, No. 3, 2006, pp. 758-770. doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2004.07.065
[4] A. A. Batabyal and P. Nijkamp, “On Container Versus Time Based Inspection Policies in Invasive Species Management,” Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, Vol. 19, No. 5, 2005, pp. 340-347. doi:10.1007/s00477-005-0239-3
[5] USDA, APHIS and USFS, “Pest Risk Assessment for Importation of Solid Wood Packing Materials into the United States,” 2000.
[6] C. McAusland and C. Costello, “Avoiding Invasives: Trade-Related Policies for Controlling Unintentional Exotic Species Introductions,” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2004, pp. 954-977. doi:10.1016/j.jeem.2003.11.002
[7] H. A. Ameden, S. B. Cash and D. Zilberman, “Border Enforcement and Firm Response in the Management of Invasive Species,” Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Vol. 39, 2007, pp. 35-46.
[8] A. A. Batabyal and S. J. Yoo, “A Theoretical Analysis of Random Inspections and Fines in Invasive Species Management,” Economics Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 15, 2008, pp. 1-9.
[9] A. A. Batabyal, “A Theoretical Note on the Optimal Dependability and Speed of Container Inspections in Invasive Species Management,” Studies in Regional Science, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2008, pp. 199-204. doi:10.2457/srs.38.199
[10] P. R. Merel and C. A. Carter, “A Second Look At Managing Import Risk from Invasive Species,” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 56, No. 3, 2008, pp. 286-290. doi:10.1016/j.jeem.2008.02.002
[11] J. N. Sanchirico, H. J. Albers, C. Fischer and C. Coleman. “Spatial Management of Invasive Species: Pathways and Policy Options,” Environmental and Resource Economics, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2010, pp. 517-535. doi:10.1007/s10640-009-9326-0
[12] G. J. DeAngelo, A. A. Batabyal and S. Kumar, “On Economic Cost Minimization Versus Biological Invasion Damage Control,” In: A. Oude Lansink, Ed., New Approaches to the Economics of Plant Health, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 2006, pp. 23-37.
[13] G. J. DeAngelo, A. A. Batabyal and S. Kumar, “An Analysis of Economic Cost Minimization and Biological Invasion Damage Control Using the AWQ Criterion,” Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2007, pp. 639-655. doi:10.1007/s00168-007-0121-y
[14] A. A. Batabyal, “An Analysis of Inspections When Economic Cost Reduction Matters More than Biological Invasion Damage Control,” In: A. A. Batabyal, Dynamic and Stochastic Resource Economics, World Scientific Publishing, Forthcoming.
[15] S. M. Ross, “Stochastic Processes,” 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York, 1996.
[16] H. C. Tijms, “A First Course in Stochastic Models,” Wiley, Chichester, 2003. doi:10.1002/047001363X

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.