Does Spine Posture Affect Isometric Torso Muscle Endurance Profiles in Adolescent Children?


The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine mean values of isometric torso muscle profiles of four spinal postures (good posture, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis and scoliosis) among 743 children from the ages of 7 to 14 years old. It was hypothesized that having good posture, thoracic hyper-kyphosis, lumbar hyper-lordosis and scoliosis is linked to different isometric torso muscle endurance profiles. Torso muscle endurance, established through four tests (Biering-S?rensen Test for extensor endurance, Flexor Endurance Test and right and left Side Bridge Tests for lateral endurance) performed in random order and spine postural screening categorized subjectively by observation was measured. Posture was proved to be linked to endurance scores. Hyper-lordotic spines demonstrated a decreased endurance compared to the three other postures (F = 5.344; p < 0.01); pairwise comparisons confirmed these differences (p < 0.05). Trends further suggested that hyper-lordosis was detrimental in lateral chain torso endurance while a hyper-kyphotic spine was more resilient in anterior chain torso endurance. Understanding the relationship between posture and endurance may be beneficial in clinical, as well as coaching/teaching settings.

Share and Cite:

Dejanovic, A. , Cambridge, E. & McGill, S. (2013). Does Spine Posture Affect Isometric Torso Muscle Endurance Profiles in Adolescent Children?. Advances in Physical Education, 3, 111-115. doi: 10.4236/ape.2013.33019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Anwajler, J., Skrzek, A., Mraz, M., Skolimowski, T., & Wozniewski, M. (2006). The size of physiological spinal curvatures and functional parameters of trunk muscles in children with idiopathic scoliosis. Isokinetic and Exercise Science, 14, 251-259.
[2] Bharati, A., & Rati, G. P. (2012). A study to correlate postural thora cic kyphosis and abdominal muscle strength and endurance. Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy—An Interna tional Journal, 6, 19-21.
[3] Breen, R., Pyper, S., Rusk, Y., & Dockrell, S. (2007). An investigation of children’s posture and discomfort during computer use. Ergonom ics, 50, 1582-1592. doi:10.1080/00140130701584944
[4] Coorevits, P. L. M., Danneels, L. A., Ramon, H., Van Audekercke, R., Cambier, D. C., & Vanderstraeten, G. G. (2005). Statistical modeling of fatigue-related electromyographic median frequency characteris tics of back and hip muscles during a standardized isometric back extension test. Journal of Electromyogr Kinesiology, 15, 444-451. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2005.02.002
[5] Coté, P., Kreitz, B., Cassidy, J. D., Dzus, A. K., & Martel, J. A. (1998). Study of the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of the scoliometer and Adam’s forward bend test. Spine, 23, 796-802.doi:10.1097/000076
[6] Dankaerts, W., O’Sullivan, P., Burnett, A., & Straker, L. (2006). Dif ferences in sitting postures are associated with nonspecific chronic low back pain disorders when patients are subclassified. Spine, 31, 698-704. doi:10.1097/01.brs.0000202532.76925.d2
[7] Dejanovic, A., Harvey, E., & McGill, S. M. (2012). Changes in 3D torso muscle endurance profiles in children aged 7 to 14: Reference values. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93, 2295-2301. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2011.12.023
[8] Escalada, F., Marco, E., Duarte, E., Muniesa, J. M., Belmonte, R., Te jero, M., & Caceres, E. (2005). Growth and curve stabilization in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine, 30, 411-417. doi:10.1097/01.brs.0000153397.81853.6a
[9] Evans, K., Refshauge, K., & Adams, R. (2007). Trunk muscle endur ance tests: Reliability, and gender differences in athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 10, 447-455.doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2006.
[10] Griegel-Morris, P., Larson, K., Mueller-Klaus, K., & Oatis, C. A. (1992). Incidence of common postural abnormalities in the cervical, shoulder, and thoracic regions and their association with pain in two age groups of healthy subjects. Physical Therapy, 72, 425-431.
[11] Harrison, D. E., Cailliet, R., Harrison, D. D., & Janik T. J. (2002) How do anterior/posterior translations of thoracic cage affect the sagittal lumbar spine, pelvic tilt and thoracic kyphosis? European Spine Journal, 11, 287-293. doi:10.1007/s00586-001-0350-1
[12] Harrison, D. D., Harrison, S. O., Croft, A. C., Harrison, D. E., & Troy anovich, S. J. (1999). Sitting biomechanics part I: Review of the lit erature. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 22, 594-609. doi:10.1016/S0161-4754(99)70020-5
[13] Hrysomallis, C., & Goodman, C. (2001). A review of resistance exer cise and posture realignment. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 15, 385-390.
[14] Kendall, E. P., McCreary, E. K., Provance, P. G., Rodgers, M. Mc., & Romani, W. A. (2005). Muscles testing & function with posture and pain (5th ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
[15] Malina, R. M, Bouchard, C., & Bar-Or, O. (2004). Growth, maturation, and physical activity (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
[16] McEvoy, M. P., & Grimmer, K. (2005). Reliability of upright posture measurements in primary school children. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 6, 35. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-6-35
[17] McGill, S. M. (2007). Low back disorders: Evidence based prevention and rehabilitation (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
[18] McGill, S. M., Childs, A., & Liebenson, C. (1999). Endurance times for low back stabilization exercises: Clinical targets for testing and train ing from a normal database. Archives of Physical Medicine and Re habilitation, 80, 941-944. doi:10.1016/S0003-9993(99)90087-4
[19] Mulhearn, S., & George, K. (1999). Abdominal muscle endurance and its association with posture and low back pain. Physiotherapy, 85, 210-216. doi:10.1016/S0031-9406(05)65666-0
[20] Raistenskis, J., Sinkevicius, R., Varniene, L., & Doveikiene, J. (2012). Association between back pain and physical development in children. Health Sciences Magazine, 22, 11-16.
[21] Ramirez, N., Johnston, C. E., & Browne, R. H. (1997). The prevalence of back pain in children who have idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Bone Joint Surgery of America, 79, 364-368.
[22] Reamy, B. V., & Slakey, J. B. (2001). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Review and current concepts. American Family Physician, 64, 111-117.
[23] Sanders, J. O., Browne, R. H., Cooney, T. E. Finegold, D. N., McCon nell, S. J., & Margraf, S. A. (2006). Correlates of the peak height ve locity in girls with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine, 31, 2289-2295. doi:10.1097/01.brs.0000236844.41595.26
[24] Sinaki, M., Itoi, E., Rogers., J. W., Bergstralh, E. J., & Wahner, H. W. (1996). Correlation of back extensor strength with thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis in estrogen-deficient women. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 75, 370-374. doi:10.1097/00002060-199609000-00013
[25] Sparto, P. J., Parnianpour, M., Reinsel, T. E., & Simon, S. (1997). The effect of fatigue on multijoint kinematics and load sharing during a repetitive lifting test. Spine, 22, 2647-2654. doi:10.1097/0000
[26] Stokes, I. A. F., & Gardner-Morse, M. (2004). Muscle activation stra tegies and symmetry of spinal loading in the lumbar spine with sco liosis. Spine, 29, 2103-2107. doi:10.1097/01.brs.0000141182.
[27] Toppenberg, K., & Bullock, M. (1986). The interrelation of spinal curves, pelvic tilt and muscle length in the adolescent female. Aus tralian Journal of Physiotherapy, 32, 6-12.
[28] Weinstein, S. (1994). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Prevalence and na tural history. The Pediatric Spine: Principles and Practic, 463-478.
[29] Wilke, H. J., Neef, P., Caimi, M., Hoogland, T., & Claes L. E. (1999). New in vivo measurements of pressures in the intervertebral disc in daily life. Spine, 24, 755-762. doi:10.1097/00007632-199904150-00005

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.