Design of Foundations Built on a Shallow Depth (Less than 4 m) of Egyptian Macro-Porous Collapsible Soils


It is nowadays well reported that collapsible soils spread in many countries, including United States, Russia, China, South America (e.g. Brazil), South and North Africa (e.g. Egypt, Algeria), Middle East (e.g. Saudi Arabia) and many countries in Eastern Europe. In general, collapsible soils are located in arid and semi-arid regions around the world. This special type of soil is characterized by abrupt reduction in strength, excessive and sudden settlement when it becomes wet leading to failure of the structure. Construction on such a kind of soil is one of the prominent problems in geotechnical engineering. The main objectives of this study are reporting geological and geotechnical zonation maps for potentially collapsible soils in inhabited areas in Egypt. Furthermore, a design technique for foundations built on a shallow depth of Egyptian macro-porous collapsible soils (less than 4 m) is developed. The design method includes a design chart for soil collapse field classification in terms of the most governing parameters, a method for foundation settlement estimation based on a correlation between the wetting-induced collapse strain and the applied pressure, and a design practice to guide practicing engineers to select the appropriate foundation system to construct on such soil with a great degree of confidence and safety.

Share and Cite:

T. Ayadat and A. Hanna, "Design of Foundations Built on a Shallow Depth (Less than 4 m) of Egyptian Macro-Porous Collapsible Soils," Open Journal of Geology, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 209-215. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2013.33024.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] T. Ayadat and A. M. Hanna, “Encapsulated Stone Columns as a Soil Improvement Technique for Collapsible Soil,” Ground Improvement Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2005, pp. 137-147. doi:10.1680/grim.2005.9.4.137
[2] T. Ayadat, A. Hanna, M. Abdel-Rahman and M. Sabry, “Effect of Additives on Wetting-Induced Collapse Strain and Shear Characteristics of a Collapsing Soil,” 5th International Engineering Conference, Geo-Technique 3, Session 11, No. 18/8, Mansoura, 27-31 March 2006.
[3] “Geotechnical Encyclopedia of Egypt,” The General Authority of Educational Building, Cairo, 2003.
[4] M. E. Mossaad, A. K. Hussein, T. Y. Elkady, A. H. Moddather and A. M. Galla, “A Study on Collapsing Soils in Egypt,” Report, National Academy for Scientific Research and Technology, Cairo, 2006.
[5] T. Ayadat, A. Hanna and K. Abbeche, “Assessment of Some Factors Affecting Soil Collapse Behavior,” 60th Canadian Geotechnical Conference & 8th Joint CGS/ IAH-CNC Ground Water Conference, Ottawa, 21-24 October 2007.
[6] T. Ayadat and A. M. Hanna, “Identification of Collapsible Soil Using the Fall Cone Apparatus,” Journal of Testing Materials, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2007, Article ID: GTJ14193.
[7] Kozeny (1927), Quoted by A. A. Moussa, “Permeability of Clean Sand,” Journal of Egyptien Society of Engineers, 1963, pp. 33-42.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.