Role of Religious Orientation in Predicting Marital Adjustment and Psychological Well-Being


Considering indices such as dynamism and complexity of modern societies, advances in psychology science, and increasing growth of spiritual needs of human against physical ones, also with respect to increasing rate of divorce in Iran, current research was done in order to study the relationship between Religious Orientation and Marital Adjustment and Psychological Well-Being. The method of current research is descriptive-correlation. Statistic population includes all married teachers of Langroud city in 2012, which 150 individuals were selected as sample via multi level cluster sampling. Alport Religious Orientation Scale (1950), Spanir Marital Adjustment Scale (1976) and Ryff Psychological Well-Being questionnaire (1998) was used. Data analysis shows that there is meaningful relation between internal religious orientation and marital adjustment (p = .000, r = .436) and also between internal religious orientation and psychological well-being (p = .000, r = .506). In addition, results showed that internal religious orientation is able to meaningful predictions of Marital Adjustment and Psychological Well-Being. These findings show that internal religious orientation can predict the psychological well-being and marital adjustment meaningfully. So from scientific dimension, application of religion with the meaning of inner faith is suggested in prevention and medical interferences in this area.

Share and Cite:

Yeganeh, T. & Shaikhmahmoodi, H. (2013). Role of Religious Orientation in Predicting Marital Adjustment and Psychological Well-Being. Sociology Mind, 3, 131-136. doi: 10.4236/sm.2013.32020.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Allport, G. W. (1950). The individual and his religion: A psychological interpretation. New York: Macmillan.
[2] Allport, G. W. (1963). Behavioral science, religion, and mental health, Journal of Religion and Health, 2, 187-197. doi:10.1007/BF01533333
[3] Allport, G. W., & Ross, J. M. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 432-443. doi:10.1037/h0021212
[4] Alois, S., & Bruno, S. F. (2009). Does marriage make people happy, or do happy people get married? The Journal of Socio-Economic, 35, 326-367.
[5] American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington DC: Heffner Media Group, Inc..
[6] Aten, D. J., & Worthington, E. L. (2009). Next steps for clinicians in religious and spiritual therapy: An endpiece. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 224-229. doi:10.1002/jclp.20562
[7] Aten, J. D., & Schenck, J. E. (2007). Reflections on religion and health research: An interview with Dr. Harold G. Koenig. Journal of Religion and Health, 46, 183-190. doi:10.1007/s10943-006-9076-z
[8] Bar-On, R., & Parker, J. D. A. (2006). Handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Boss.
[9] Chen, Z., Tanaka, N., Uji, M., Hiramura, H., & Shikai, N. (2007). The role of personalities in marital adjustment of Japanese couples. Journal of Social Behavioral and personality, 35, 561-572. doi:10.2224/sbp.2007.35.4.561
[10] Demaris, A., Mahoney A., & Pargament K. I. (2010). Sanctification of marriage and general religiousness as buffers of the effects of marital inequity. Journal of Family Issues, 31, 1255-1278.
[11] DePaulo, B. M. (2004). The scientific study of people who are single: An annotated bibliography. Glendale, CA: Academic Advisory Board of Spectrum Institute, Research and Policy Division of the American Association for Single People (AASP). URL (last checked 1 May 2007).
[12] Diener, E., Gohm, C. L., Suh, M., & Oishi, S. (2002). Similarity of the relation between marital status and subjective well being across cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, 419-436. doi:10.1177/0022022100031004001
[13] Frankel, V. E. (1975). Man’s search for meaning. Boston: Beacon Press.
[14] Gaal, F. (2005). The role of differentiation of self and anxiety in predicting marital adjustment following the death of an adult, marriedchild biological parent. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Los Angels, CA: Seton Hall University.
[15] Gholami, A., & Beshlideh. K. (2012). The effect of spiritual therapy on mental health of divorced women. Journal of Family Counseling & Psychotherapy, 1, 331-348.
[16] Gong, M. (2000). Does status inconsistency matter for marital quality? Journal of Family, 28, 152-161.
[17] Hackney, C. H., & Sanders, G. S. (2003). Religiosity and mental health: A meta-analysis of recent studies. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42, 43-55. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00160
[18] Halford, W. K., Lizzio, A., Wilson, K. L., & Occhipinti, S. (2007). Does working at your marriage help? Couple relationship, selfregulation and satisfaction in the first 4 years of marriage. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 185-194. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.21.2.185
[19] Hills, P., & Francis, L. J. (2004). Primary Personality trait correlates religious practice and orientation. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 61-73. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00051-5
[20] Hunler, O. S., & Gencoz, T. I. (2005). The effect of religiousness on marital satisfaction: Testing the mediator role of marital problem solving between religiousness and marital satisfaction. Contemporary Family Therapy, 27, 123-136. doi:10.1007/s10591-004-1974-1
[21] Janbozorgi, M. (1999). Effectiveness of psychological therapy with and without the Islamic religious orientation on anxious and stress in students. Journal of Psychology, 2, 343-368.
[22] Kezdy, A., Martos, T., Boland, V., & Horváth, K. (2010). Religious doubts and mental health in adolescence and young adulthood: The association with religious attitudes. Journal of Adolescence, 11, 1-9.
[23] Koenig, H. G. (2007). Spirituality and depression: A look at the evidence. Southern Medical Journal, 10, 737-739. doi:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e318073c68c
[24] MacGregor, C. A. (2008). Religious socialization and children’s prayer as cultural object: Boundary work in children’s 19th century Sunday school books. Poetics, 36, 435-449. doi:10.1016/j.poetic.2008.06.012
[25] Maddahi, M., Samadzadeh, M., & Keykhayefarzaneh, M. M. (2011). The relationship between religious orientation and psychological well-being. Quarterly Journal of Educational Psychology, 2, 53-63.
[26] Mahoney, A. (2005). Religion and conflict in marital and parent child relationship. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 689-706. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005.00427.x
[27] Mahoney, A., paragment, K. I., Swank, A. B., & Swank, N. (2003). Sanctification if family relationships. Review of Religious Research, 44, 220-236. doi:10.2307/3512384
[28] Mahoney, A., Pargament, K. I., Jewell, T., Swank, A. B., Scott, E., Emery, E., & Rye, M. (1999). Marriage and the spiritual realm: The role of proximal and distal religious constructs in marital functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 321-338. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.13.3.321
[29] Mahoney, A., Pargament, K., Swank, A., & Tarakeshvar, N. (2001). Religion in the home in the 1980s and 1990s: A meta-analytic review and conceptual analysis of religion, marriage and parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 559-596.
[30] Marks, L. D. (2008). Prayer and marital intervention: Asking for divine help … or professional trouble? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27, 678-685. doi:10.1521/jscp.2008.27.7.678
[31] Marsh, R., & Dallos, R. (2000). Religious beliefs and practices and Catholic couples’ management of anger and conflict. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 7, 22-36. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0879(200002)7:1<22::AID-CPP217>3.0.CO;2-R
[32] McCullough, M. E., & Willoughby, B. L. B. (2009). Religion, selfregulation, self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 69-93. doi:10.1037/a0014213
[33] Nathaniel, M., & David, C. (2006). Family relation. Journal of Family Therapy, 34, 65-78.
[34] Nelson, M. O., & Jones, E. M. (1957). An application of the Q-Technique to the study of religious concepts. Psychological Reports, 3, 293-297. doi:10.2466/pr0.1957.3.3.293
[35] Nelson, P. B. (1990). Intrinsic/extrinsic religious orientation of the elderly: Relationship to depression and self-esteem. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 16, 29-35.
[36] Newton, A. T., & McIntosh, D. N. (2010). Specific religious beliefs in a cognitive appraisal model of stress and coping. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 20, 39-58. doi:10.1080/10508610903418129
[37] Nielsen, S. L., Johnson, W. B., & Ellis, A. (2001). Counseling and psychotherapy with religious persons: A rational emotive behavior therapy. Mahway, NJ: Elbaum.
[38] Orathinkal, J., & Vansteewegen, A. (2006). Religiosity and marital satisfaction. Contemporary Family Therapy, 28, 497-504. doi:10.1007/s10591-006-9020-0
[39] Rodriguez, C. M., & Henderson, R. C. (2010). Who spares the road? Religious orientation, social conformity, and child abuse potential. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 84-94. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.07.002
[40] Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., & Love, G. D., (2004). Positive health: Connecting well-being with biology. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. Biological Sciences, 359, 1383-1394. doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1521
[41] Ryff, C. D., & Keyes C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719-727. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.69.4.719
[42] Sorajjakol, S., Aja, V., Chilson, B., Ramirez–Johnson, J., & Earll, A. (2008). Disconnection, depression and spirituality: A study of the role of spirituality and meaning in the lives of individuals with sever depression. Pastoral psychology, 56, 521-532. doi:10.1007/s11089-008-0125-2
[43] Spanier, G., & Cole, C. (1976). Toward clarification and investigation of marital adjustment. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 6, 121-146.
[44] Spanier, G. B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, 15-28. doi:10.2307/350547
[45] Stutzer, A., & Frey B. S., (2006). “Does marriage make people happy or do happy people get married? Journal of Socio-Economics, 35, 326-347. doi:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
[46] Vanderbleek, L., Robinson, E. H., Casado-Kehoe M, & Young, M. E. (2011). The relationship between play and couple satisfaction and stability. The Family Journal, 19, 132-139. doi:10.1177/1066480711399729
[47] Williams, A. (2010). Spiritual therapeutic landscapes and healing: A case study of St. Anne de Beaupre, Quebec, Canada. Social Science & Medicine, 70, 1633-1640. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.01.012
[48] Wilson, Ch. M., & Oswald., A. J. (2005). How does marriage affect physical and psychological health? A survey of the longitudinal evidence.
[49] Yalcin, B. M., & Karahan, T. F. (2007). Effects of a couple communication program on marital adjustment. Journal of the American board of family medicine, 20, 36-44. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2007.01.060053
[50] Yang, K. P., & Mao, X. Y. (2007). A study of nurses’ spiritual intelligence: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44, 999-1010. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.03.004
[51] Yarmohammadyan, A., Bonakdarehashemi, N., & Asgari, K. (2011). The effect of emotional intelligence and life skills training on marital adjustment among young couples. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology, 12, 3-12.

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.