Bone mineral density in Iranian patients: Effects of age, sex, and body mass index


Introduction: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial skeletal disease that is characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD). BMD values depend on several factors such as age, sex and age at menopause. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and changes in bone mineral density in Iranian patients. Methods: Three hundred patients were selected through random sampling technique in 2009. BMD was assessed by Norland (Excell) technique at the lumbar and femoral neck. Weight and height were measured through standard methods. A thorough history was taken from each patient. The data was analyzed using SPSS software version 13.0. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: From among the 300 studied patients, 86.6% were female. their mean age was 52.7 years. Their average body mass index (BMI) was 28.14 kg/m2. Mean T-Score at lumbar spine and femoral neck was -1.07 ±1.19 and -1.75 ± 1.33 respectively. Mean BMD value at lumbar spine and femoral neck was 0.92 ± 0.19 and 0.77 ± 0.16 respectively. The prevalence of osteoporosis at lumbar spine and femoral neck was 33.7% and 16.7, respectively. There was a significant correlation between age, BMI and BMD values (P-Value < 0.01). Correlation between gender and BMD value at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was not significant. Conclusion: This study shows that ageing and low BMI are risk factors associated with bone loss. it is recommended to measure BMD and implement prevention programs for high-risk people.

Share and Cite:

Aghaei, M. , Afshan, H. , Qorbani, M. , Dashti, H. and Safari, R. (2013) Bone mineral density in Iranian patients: Effects of age, sex, and body mass index. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3, 128-131. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.31016.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Ichchou, L., Allali, F., Rostom, S., Bennani, L., Hmamouchi, I., Abourazzak, F.Z., Khazzani, H., El Mansouri, L., Abouqa, R. and Hajjaj-Hassouni1, N. (2010) Relationship between spine osteoarthritis, bone mineral density and bone turn over markers in post menopausal women. BMC Women’s Health, 10, 2-7.
[2] Raisz, L.G. and Shoukri, K.G. (1993) Pathogenesis of osteoporosis. In: Mundy, G.R. and Martin, T.J., Eds., Pharmacology of Bone, Springer-Verlag, New York, 299-323. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-77991-6_9
[3] Kanis, J.A., Melton, L.J., Christiansen, C., Johnston, C.C. and Khaltaev, N. (1994) The diagnosis of osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 9, 1137-1141. doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650090802
[4] Melton, L.J., Chrischilles, E.A., Cooper, C., Lane, A.W. and Riggs, B.L. (1992) Perspective. How many women have osteoporosis? Journal of Bone Minerals Research, 7, 1005-1010. doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650070902
[5] Baheiraei, A., Pocock, N.A., Eisman, J.A., Nguyen, N.D. and Nguyen, T.V. (2005) Bone mineral density, body mass index and cigarette smoking among Iranian women: Implications for prevention. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 6, 1-9.
[6] Bayat, N., Haji, A.Z., Alishiri, G.., Ebadi, A., Hosseini, M. and Laluee, A. (2008) Frequency of osteoporosis and osteopenia in post-menopausal military family’s women. JAUMS, 6, 1-6.
[7] Pajoohi, M., Hossein, N.A., Soltani, A., Adibi, H., Maghbuli, G. and Larijani, B. (2003) Changes in bone density and osteoporosis in males 10 to 76 years. Payesh Journal, 3, 39-48.
[8] Hejazi, J., Kolahi, S. and Mehtadinia, J. (2007) The relation between age, weight, BMD and post menopausal age on BMI in post menopausal women. Journal of Yazd University of Medical Sciences, 16, 68-74.
[9] Momohara, S., Okamoto, H., Yago, T., Furuya, T., Nanke, Y., Kotake, S., et al. (2005) The study of bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with active rheumatoid arthritis. Modern Rheumatology, 15, 410-414. doi:10.1007/s10165-005-0435-5
[10] Haugeberg, G., Uhlig, T., Falch, J.A., Halse, J.I., Kvien, T.K. (2000) Bone mineral density and frequency of osteoporosis in female patients with RA, results from 394 patients in Oslo County Rheumatoid Arthritis Register. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 43, 522-530. doi:10.1002/1529-0131(200003)43:3<522::AID-ANR7>3.0.CO;2-Y
[11] Cooper, C., Campion, G. and Melton 3rd, L.J. (1992) Hip fractures in the elderly: A world-wide projection. Osteoporosis International, 2, 285-289. doi:10.1007/BF01623184
[12] World Health Organization (1994) Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. World Health Organization Technical Report Series, No. 843, 1-129.
[13] Gullberg, B., Johnell, O. and Kanis, J.A. (1997) Worldwide projections for hip fracture. Osteoporosis International, 7, 407-413. doi:10.1007/PL00004148
[14] Browner, W.S., Pressman, A.R., Nevitt, M.C. and Cummings, S.R. (1996) Mortality following fractures in older women. The study of osteoporotic fractures. Archives of Internal Medicine, 156, 1521-1525. doi:10.1001/archinte.1996.00440130053006
[15] Larijani, B., Resch, H., Bonjour, J.P, Aghai-Meybodi, H.R. and Moha-jery-Tehrani, M.R. (2007) Osteoporosis in Iran, Overview and Management. Iranian Journal of Public Health, a Supplementary Issue on Osteoporosis, 1-13.
[16] Bagheri, P., Haghdoost, A.A., Dortaj, R.E., Halimi, L., Vafaie, Z., Farhangnia, M. and Shayan, L. (2011) Metaanalysis of prevalence of osteoporosis in women. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 13, 315-325.
[17] Derakhshan, S., Salehi, R. and Reshadma-nesh, N. (2006) Prevalence of osteoporosis, osteopenia and their related factors in post-menopausal women referring to Kurdistan densitometry center. Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, 11, 59-67.
[18] Mojibian, M., Owlia, M.B., Beiki, B.O. and Kochak, Y.L. (2006) Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Iranian Journal of Surgery, 14, 62-70.
[19] Namwongprom, S., Ekmahachai, M., Vilasdecha-non, N., Klaipetch, A., Wongboontan, C. and Boonyaprapa, S. (2011) Bone mineral density: Correlation between the lumbar spine, proximal femur and radius in northern Thai women. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 94, 725-731.
[20] Pinheiro, M.M., Reis Neto, E.T., Machado, F.S., Omura, F., Yang, J.H.K., Szejnfeld, I.J. and Szejnfeld, V.L. (2010) Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures and low bone density in pre and postmenopausal women. Revista de Saúde Pública, 44, 479-485. doi:10.1590/S0034-89102010000300011
[21] Meiyanti (2010) Epidemiology of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women aged 47 to 60 years. Universa Medicina, 29, 169-176.
[22] Heidari, Z., Zyaie, S. and Moghassemi, S. (2010) The relationship between BMI and reproductive histories and bone density in postmenopausal women. Arak Medical University Journal, (AMUJ), 13, 53-60.
[23] Jamshidian-Tehrani, M., Kalantari, N., Azadbakht, L., Esmaillzadeh, A., Rajaie, A., Houshiar-rad, A., Golestan, B. and Kamali, Z. (2004) Osteoporosis risk factors in Tehrani women aged 40-60 years. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 6, 139-145.
[24] Zhang, H.C., Kushida, K., Atsumi, K., Kin, K. and Nagano, A. (2002) Effects of age and menopause on spinal bone mineral density in Japanese women: A ten-year prospective study. Calcified Tissue International, 70, 153-157. doi:10.1007/s00223-001-1037-7
[25] Jang, S.N., Choi, Y.H., Choi, M.G., Kang, S.H., Jeong, J.Y., Choi, Y.J. and Kim, D.H. (2006) Prevalence and associated factors of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women in Chuncheon: Hallym aging study (HAS). Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 39, 389-396.
[26] Fawzy, T, Muttappallymyalil, J., Sreedharan, J., Ahmed, A., Saeed, A.S.O., Al Ali, M.S. and Al Balsooshi, K.A. (2011) Association between body mass index and bone mineral density in patients referred for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan in Ajman, UAE. Journal of Osteoporosis, 4 Pages.
[27] Elizabeth, J., Dayananda, G., Satyavati, K. and Kumar, P. (2009) Bone mineral density in healthy south Indian men. Journal of Physiological and Biomedical Sciences, 2, 41-44.
[28] Arimatsu, M., Kitano, T., Kitano, N., Inomoto, T., Shono, M., Futatsuka, M. (2005) Correlation between forearm bone mineral density and body composition in Japanese females aged 18-40 years. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 10, 144-149. doi:10.1007/BF02900807
[29] van der Voort, D.J., Geusens, P.P. and Dinant, G.J. (2001) Risk factors for osteoporosis related to their outcome: Fractures. Osteoporosis International, 12, 630-638. doi:10.1007/s001980170062
[30] Castro, J.P., Joseph, L.A., Shin, J.J., Arora, S.K., Nicasio, J., Shatzkes, J., et al. (2005) Differential effect of obesity on bone mineral density in White, Hispanic and African American women: A cross sectional study. Nutrition & Metabolism, 2, 9. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-9
[31] Maghraoui, A.E., Guerboub, A.A., Mounach, A., Ghozlani, I., Nouijai, A., Ghazi, M., et al. (2007) Body mass index and gynecological factors as determinants of bone mass in healthy Moroccan women. Maturitas, 56, 375-382. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2006.10.004
[32] Lewin, S., Gouveia, C.H., Marone, M.M., Wehba, S., Malvestiti, L.F. and Bianco, A.C. (1997) Densidade mineral óssea vertebral e femoral em 724 mulheres brancas brasileiras: Influência da idade e do peso corporal. Revista da Associa??o Médica Brasileira, 43, 127-136. doi:10.1590/S0104-42301997000200009
[33] Cui, L.H., Choi, J.S., Shin, M.H., Kweon, S.S., Park, K.S., Lee, Y.H., et al. (2008) Prevalence of osteoporosis and reference data for lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density in a Korean population. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 26, 609-617. doi:10.1007/s00774-007-0847-8
[34] Tuck S.P., Pearce, M.S., Rawlings, D.J., Birrell, F.N., Parker, L. and Francis, R.M. (2005) Differences in bone mineral density and geometry in men and women: The Newcastle thousand families study at 50 years old. British Journal of Radiology, 78, 493-498. doi:10.1259/bjr/42380498
[35] Anburajan, M., Ashok, K.D. and Sapthagirivasan, V. (2011) Evaluation of osteoporosis in Indian women and men using peripheral dual energy x-ray ab-sorptiometry (pDXA). IPCBEE, 5, 470-474.
[36] Lei, S.F., Deng, F.Y., Li, M.-X., Dvornyk, V. and Deng, H.W. (2004) Bone mineral density in elderly Chinese: Effects of age, sex, weight, height, and body mass index. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 22, 71-78. doi:10.1007/s00774-003-0452-4

Copyright © 2024 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.